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Occitania
Occitania
Occitania
(Occitan: Occitània, IPA: [uksiˈtanjɔ], [ukʃiˈtanjɔ], [usiˈtanjɔ], [uksiˈtanja] or [utsiˈtanjɔ][1][2]) is the historical region, and also is a nation,[3] [4] [5] in southern Europe where Occitan
Occitan
was historically the main language spoken,[6] and where it is sometimes still used, for the most part as a second language
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Basque Country (greater Region)
The Basque Country (Basque: Euskal Herria; French: Pays basque; Spanish: Vasconia, País Vasco) is the name given to the home of the Basque people.[1] The Basque country is located in the western Pyrenees, straddling the border between France
France
and Spain
Spain
on the coast of the Bay of Biscay. Euskal Herria is the oldest documented Basque name for the area they inhabit, dating from the 16th century.[2] It comprises the Autonomous Communities
Autonomous Communities
of the Basque Country and Navarre
Navarre
in Spain
Spain
and the Northern Basque Country
Northern Basque Country
in France. The region is home to the Basque people
Basque people
(Basque: Euskaldunak), their language (Basque: Euskara), culture and traditions
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Fenouillèdes
Fenouillèdes
Fenouillèdes
(Occitan: Fenolhedés/Fenolheda; Catalan: Fenolledès/Fenolleda) is a French comarca and a traditional Occitan-speaking area in the département of Pyrénées-Orientales. The capital of the comarca is Saint-Paul-de-Fenouillet
Saint-Paul-de-Fenouillet
(Sant Pau de Fenolhet).Fenolheda road sign, introduced by Christian Bourquin Fenouillèdes
Fenouillèdes
has been part of France
France
since the Treaty of Corbeil of 1258
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Limousin (province)
The history of Limousin
Limousin
(Occitan: Lemosin), one of the traditional provinces of France, reaches back to Celtic and Roman times. The region surrounds the city of Limoges
Limoges
(Occitan: Limòtges). Limousin lies in the foothills of the western edge of the Massif Central, with cold weather in the winter
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Gordes
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. Gordes
Gordes
is a commune in the Vaucluse
Vaucluse
département in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
region in southeastern France. The residents are known as Gordiens
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Gascony
Gascony (/ˈɡæskəni/; French: Gascogne [ɡaskɔɲ]; Gascon: Gasconha [ɡasˈkuɲɔ]; Basque: Gaskoinia) is an area of southwest France that was part of the "Province of Guyenne and Gascony" prior to the French Revolution. The region is vaguely defined, and the distinction between Guyenne and Gascony is unclear; by some they are seen to overlap, while others consider Gascony a part of Guyenne. Most definitions put Gascony east and south of Bordeaux. It is currently divided between the region of Nouvelle-Aquitaine (departments of Landes, Pyrénées-Atlantiques, southwestern Gironde, and southern Lot-et-Garonne) and the region of Occitanie (departments of Gers, Hautes-Pyrénées, southwestern Tarn-et-Garonne, and western Haute-Garonne). Gascony was historically inhabited by Basque-related people who appear to have spoken a language similar to Basque. The name Gascony comes from the same root as the word Basque (see Wasconia below)
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Dante
Dante Alighieri
Dante Alighieri
(Italian: [duˈrante deʎʎ aliˈɡjɛːri]), simply called Dante (Italian: [ˈdante], UK: /ˈdænti/, US: /ˈdɑːnteɪ/; c. 1265 – 1321), was a major Italian poet of the Late Middle Ages/Early Renaissance. His Divine Comedy, originally called Comedìa (modern Italian: Commedia) and later christened Divina by Boccaccio, is widely considered the most important poem of the Middle Ages and the greatest literary work in the Italian language.[1][2] In the late Middle Ages, most poetry was written in Latin, accessible only to the most educated readers. In De vulgari eloquentia
De vulgari eloquentia
(On Eloquence in the Vernacular), however, Dante defended use of the vernacular in literature
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Portmanteau
A portmanteau (/pɔːrtˈmæntoʊ/ ( listen), /ˌpɔːrtmænˈtoʊ/[a][b]) or portmanteau word is a linguistic blend of words,[1] in which parts of multiple words or their phones (sounds) are combined into a new word,[1][2][3] as in smog, coined by blending smoke and fog,[2][4] or motel, from motor and hotel.[5] In linguistics, a portmanteau is defined as a single morph that represents two or more morphemes.[6][7][8][9] The definition overlaps with the grammatical term contraction, but contractions are formed from words that would otherwise appear together in sequence, such as do and not to make don't, whereas a portmanteau word is formed by combining two or more existing words that all relate to a singular concept. A portmanteau also differs from a compound, which does not involve the truncation of parts of the stems of the blended words
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Midi-Pyrénées
Midi- Pyrénées
Pyrénées
(French: [midi piʁene] ( listen); Occitan: Miègjorn-Pirenèus or Mieidia-Pirenèus; Spanish: Mediodía-Pirineos) is a former administrative region of France. Since 1 January 2016, it is part of the new region Occitanie.[2] It was the largest region of Metropolitan France
France
by area, larger than the Netherlands
Netherlands
or Denmark. Midi- Pyrénées
Pyrénées
has no historical or geographical unity
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French Basque Country
The French Basque Country, or Northern Basque Country (Basque: Iparralde (i.e. 'the Northern Region'), French: Pays basque français, Spanish: País Vasco francés) is a region lying on the west of the French department
French department
of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques. Since 1 January 2017, it constitutes the Basque Municipal Community
Basque Municipal Community
(Basque: Euskal Hirigune Elkargoa; French: Communauté d'Agglomeration du Basque) presided over by Jean-René Etchegaray.[1][2] It includes three former historic French provinces in the north-east of the traditional Basque Country totalling 2,869 km²: Lower Navarre
Navarre
(French: Basse-Navarre; Basque: Nafarroa Beherea), until 1789 nominally Kingdom of Navarre, with 1,284 km²; Labourd
Labourd
(Basque: Lapurdi), with 800 km²; Soule
Soule
(Basque: Zuberoa), with 785 km²
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Poitevin-Saintongeais
Poitevin-Saintongeais
Poitevin-Saintongeais
(Poetevin-séntunjhaes;[1] also called Parlanjhe, Aguiain or even Aguiainais in French) is the language spoken in the Centre West of France officially recognised by the French Ministry of Culture
French Ministry of Culture
as a whole with two dialects, Poitevin and Saintongeais.[2] This classification is a subgroup of the Romance languages, and the Oïl language group. The dialects of this language are spoken in the areas of Poitou
Poitou
and Saintonge
Saintonge
in Nouvelle-Aquitaine and Pays de la Loire. It is classified as severely endangered by UNESCO.[3] References[edit]^ Produccions, Tirabol (13 August 2012). "Lo peitavin-santongés, una lenga sòrre e emergenta". Jornalet (in Occitan).  ^ "Langues régionales" (in French)
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Italian Language
Italian ( italiano (help·info) [itaˈljaːno] or lingua italiana [ˈliŋɡwa itaˈljaːna]) is a Romance language. Italian is by most measures, together with the Sardinian language, the closest tongue to vulgar Latin
Latin
of the Romance languages.[7] Italian is an official language in Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, Vatican City
Vatican City
and western Istria
Istria
(in Slovenia
Slovenia
and Croatia). It used to have official status in Albania, Malta
Malta
and Monaco, where it is still widely spoken, as well as in former Italian East Africa
Italian East Africa
and Italian North Africa regions where it plays a significant role in various sectors
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Ligurian (Romance Language)
Ligurian (ligure or lengua ligure) is a Gallo-Italic language spoken in Liguria
Liguria
in Northern Italy, parts of the Mediterranean coastal zone of France, Monaco
Monaco
and in the villages of Carloforte
Carloforte
and Calasetta
Calasetta
in Sardinia. It is part of the Gallo-Italic and Western Romance
Western Romance
dialect continuum
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Civilization
A civilization or civilisation (see English spelling differences) is any complex society characterized by urban development, social stratification imposed by a cultural elite, symbolic systems of communication (for example, writing systems), and a perceived separation from and domination over the natural environment.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8] Civilizations are intimately associated with and often further defined by other socio-politico-economic characteristics, including centralization, the domestication of both humans and other organisms, specialization of labour, culturally ingrained ideologies of progress and supremacism, monumental architecture, taxation, societal dependence upon farming and expansionism.[2][3][4][6][7][8] Historically, a civilization was a so-called "advanced" culture in contrast to more supposedly primitive cultures.[1][3][4][9] In this broad sense, a civilization contrasts with non-centralized tribal societies, including the cultures of nomadic pastoralists, Neoli
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Courtly Love
Courtly love
Courtly love
(or fin'amor in Occitan) was a medieval European literary conception of love that emphasized nobility and chivalry. Medieval literature is filled with examples of knights setting out on adventures and performing various services for ladies because of their "courtly love". This kind of love is originally a literary fiction created for the entertainment of the nobility, but as time passed, these ideas about love changed and attracted a larger audience. In the high Middle Ages, a "game of love" developed around these ideas as a set of social practices. "Loving nobly" was considered to be an enriching and improving practice.[1][2] Courtly love
Courtly love
began in the ducal and princely courts of Aquitaine, Provence, Champagne, ducal Burgundy and the Norman Kingdom of Sicily[3] at the end of the eleventh century
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Boischaut
The Boischaut
Boischaut
is a natural region of France, astride on the Indre
Indre
and Cher
Cher
departments. It is divided into two sub-regions: north and south.This Centre-Val de Loire
Centre-Val de Loire
geographical article is a stub
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