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Bunker

A bunker is a defensive military fortification designed to protect people and valued materials from falling bombs or other attacks. Bunkers are mostly underground, in contrast to blockhouses which are mostly above ground.[1] They were used extensively in World War I, World War II, and the Cold War for weapons facilities, command and control centers, and storage facilities. Bunkers can also be used as protection from tornadoes. Trench bunkers are small concrete structures, partly dug into the ground. Many artillery installations, especially for coastal artillery, have historically been protected by extensive bunker systems. Typical industrial bunkers include mining sites, food storage areas, dumps for materials, data storage, and sometimes living quarters. When a house is purpose-built with a bunker, the normal location is a reinforced below-ground bathroom with fibre-reinforced plastic shells
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Fatah

Fatah (Arabic: فتحFatḥ), formerly the Palestinian National Liberation Movement,[5] is a Palestinian nationalist social democratic political party and the largest faction of the confederated multi-party Palestine LFatah (Arabic: فتحFatḥ), formerly the Palestinian National Liberation Movement,[5] is a Palestinian nationalist social democratic political party and the largest faction of the confederated multi-party Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) and the second-largest party in the Palestinian Legislative Council (PLC)
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Scenic Viewpoint
A scenic viewpoint – also called an observation point, viewpoint, viewing point, vista point,[1] lookout,[1] scenic overlook,[1] etc. – is an elevated location where people can view scenery (often with binoculars) and photograph it. Scenic viewpoints may be created alongside mountain roads, often as simple turnouts or lay-bys where motorists can pull over onto pavement, gravel, or grass on the right-of-way. Many viewpoints are larger, having parking areas, while some (typically on larger highways) are off the road completely. Viewing points may also be found on hill or mountain tops or on rocky spurs overlooking a valley and reached via a hiking trail
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Chain Of Command
A command hierarchy is a group of people who carry out orders based on others' authority within the group.[citation needed] It can be viewed as part of a power structure, in which it is usually seen as the most vulnerable and also the most powerful part.[citation needed] In a military context, the chain of command is the line of authority and responsibility along which orders are passed within a military unit and between different units. In more simple terms, the chain of command is the succession of leaders through which command is exercised and executed. Orders are transmitted down the chain of command, from a responsible superior, such as a commissioned officer, to lower-ranked subordinate(s) who either execute the order personally or transmit it down the chain as appropriate, until it is received by those expected to execute it
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Forward Operating Base
A Forward Operating Base (FOB) is any secured forward operational level military position, commonly a military base, that is used to support strategic goals and tactical objectives. A FOB may or may not contain an airfield, hospital, machine shop, or other logistical facilities. The base may be used for an extended period of time. FOBs are traditionally supported by main operating bases that are required to provide backup support to them.[1] [2]A FOB also improves reaction time to local areas as opposed to having all troops on the main operating base. In its most basic form, a FOB consists of a ring of barbed wire around a position with a fortified entry control point, or ECP. More advanced FOBs include an assembly of berms, concrete barriers, gates, watchtowers, bunkers and other force protection infrastructure. They are often built from Hesco bastions.[3] FOBs will also have an Entry Control Point (ECP)
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Alertness
Alertness is the state of active attention by high sensory awareness such as being watchful and prompt to meet danger or emergency, or being quick to perceive and act. It is related to psychology as well as to physiology. A lack of alertness is a symptom of a number of conditions, including narcolepsy, attention deficit disorder, chronic fatigue syndrome, depression, Addison's disease, or sleep deprivation. Pronounced lack of alertness can be graded as an altered level of consciousness. The word is formed from "alert", which comes from the Italian "all'erta" (on the watch, literally, on the height; 1618) People who have to be alert during their jobs, such as air traffic controllers or pilots, often face challenges maintaining their alertness
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Water Tower
A water tower is an elevated structure supporting a water tank constructed at a height sufficient to pressurize a water distribution system for the distribution of potable water, and to provide emergency storage for fire protection.[1] Water towers often operate in conjunction with underground or surface service reservoirs, which store treated water close to where it will be used.[2] Other types of water towers may only store raw (non-potable) water for fire protection or industrial purposes, and may not necessarily be connected to a public water supply. Water towers are able to supply water even during power outages, because they rely on hydrostatic pressure produced by elevation of water (due to gravity) to push the water into domestic and industrial water distribution systems; however, they cannot supply the water for a long time without power, because a pump is typically required to refill the tower
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German Empire

Population density (c. 1885)

  • Detailed map in 1893 with cities and larger towns
  • About 92% of the population spoke German as their first language. The only minority language with a significant number of speakers (5.4%) was Polish (a figure that rises to over 6% when including the related Kashubian and Masurian languages). The non-German Germanic languages (0.5%), like Danish, Dutch and Frisian, were located in the north and northwest of the empire, near the borders with Denmark, the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg. Low German was spoken throughout northern Germany and, though linguistically as distinct from High German (Hochdeutsch) as from Dutch and English, is considered "German", hence also its name
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