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Oben Am Jungen Rhein
"Oben am jungen Rhein" ("High on the young Rhine") has been the national anthem of Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein
since 1920
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Werdenberg (Holy Roman Empire)
Werdenberg was a county of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
situated on either side of the Rhine, including parts of what is now St. Gallen (Switzerland), Liechtenstein, and Vorarlberg
Vorarlberg
(Austria). It was partitioned from Montfort in 1230. In 1260, it was divided into Werdenberg and Sargans.Contents1 History 2 See also 3 Footnotes 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit] It is named for Werdenberg Castle, today located in the municipality of Grabs
Grabs
in the Swiss canton of St. Gallen, seat of the counts of Werdenberg (Werdenberger), The family was descended from count Hugo II of Tübingen
Tübingen
(d. 1180), who married Elisabeth, daughter of the last count of Bregenz, thus inheriting substantial territory along the Alpine Rhine. His son was Hugo I of Montfort (d. 1228), whose son Rudolf I is considered the founder of the Werdenberg line
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Raetia
Raetia
Raetia
(/ˈriːʃə/ or /ˈriːʃiə/, Latin: [rajtia], also spelled Rhaetia) was a province of the Roman Empire, named after the Rhaetian ( Raeti
Raeti
or Rhaeti) people. It bordered on the west with the country of the Helvetii, on the east with Noricum, on the north with Vindelicia, on the west with Transalpine Gaul and on the south with Venetia et Histria. It thus comprised the districts occupied in modern times by eastern and central Switzerland
Switzerland
(containing the Upper Rhine and Lake Constance), southern Bavaria
Bavaria
and the Upper Swabia, Vorarlberg, the greater part of Tyrol, and part of Lombardy. Later Vindelicia
Vindelicia
(today south-eastern Wuerttemberg and south-western Bavaria) formed part of Raetia
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Switzerland In The Roman Era
The territory of modern Switzerland
Switzerland
was a part of the Roman Republic and Empire for a period of about six centuries, beginning with the step-by-step conquest of the area by Roman armies from the 2nd century BC and ending with the decline of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 5th century AD. The mostly Celtic tribes of the area were subjugated by successive Roman campaigns aimed at control of the strategic routes from Italy across the Alps
Alps
to the Rhine
Rhine
and into Gaul, most importantly by Julius Caesar's defeat of the largest tribal group, the Helvetii, in 58 BC
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Confederation Of The Rhine
The Confederation
Confederation
of the Rhine (German: Rheinbund; French: officially États confédérés du Rhin ["Confederated States of the Rhine"], but in practice Confédération du Rhin) was a confederation of client states of the First French Empire. It was formed initially from 16 German states by Napoleon
Napoleon
after he defeated Austria
Austria
and Russia at the Battle of Austerlitz. The Treaty of Pressburg, in effect, led to the creation of the Confederation
Confederation
of the Rhine. It lasted from 1806 to 1813.[1] The members of the confederation were German princes (Fürsten) from the Holy Roman Empire
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BBC News
BBC
BBC
News is an operational business division[1] of the British Broadcasting
Broadcasting
Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs
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The Prayer Of Russians
"The Prayer of Russians" (Russian: Молитва русских, tr. Molitva russkikh, IPA: [mɐˈlʲitvə ˈruskʲɪx]) was a song used as the national anthem of Imperial Russia
Imperial Russia
from 1816 to 1833. After defeating the First French Empire, Tsar
Tsar
Alexander I of Russia recommended a national anthem for Russia. The lyrics were written by Vasily Zhukovsky, and the music of the British anthem "God Save the King" was used. In 1833, "The Prayer of Russians" was replaced with "God Save the Tsar" (Bozhe, tsarya khrani). The two songs both start with the same words Bozhe, tsarya khrani
Bozhe, tsarya khrani
but differ after that. Some consider God Save the Tsar
Tsar
Russia's first true national anthem, as both its words and music were Russian
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Rufst Du, Mein Vaterland
"Rufst du, mein Vaterland" is the former national anthem of Switzerland. It had semi-official status as the national anthem from the 1850s to 1961, when it was replaced by the Swiss Psalm.[1] Its text was written in 1811 by Bernese philosophy professor Johann Rudolf Wyss. The tune of the anthem was the same as in "God Save the King" (1745), a tune which became widely adopted in Europe, first as the hymn of Denmark
Denmark
(1790), later also as that of Switzerland, and as that of the United States as "My Country, 'Tis of Thee" (1831). The German hymn "Heil dir im Siegerkranz" (1795, adopted as the Prussian anthem after 1815) to the same tune is an adaptation of the Danish lyrics. As in the American "My Country, 'Tis of Thee", the lyrics replace the image of the monarch with that of the fatherland, and the promise to defend it "with heart and hand" (mit Herz und Hand), the "hand" replacing the "voice" praising the king of the original lyrics
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European Microstates
The European microstates or European ministates are a set of very small sovereign states in Europe. Andorra, Liechtenstein, Malta, Monaco, San Marino, and the Vatican City are usually included,[1] and are the six smallest states in Europe by area
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Bevare Gud Vår Kung
"Bevare Gud vår Kung", literally God Save our King, is a song with lyrics written by Abraham Niclas Edelcrantz as a song of honour to the King of Sweden. It was written in 1805 to Gustaf IV Adolf. It is set to the music of the British God Save the King
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Neutrality (international Relations)
A neutral country is a state which is either neutral towards belligerents in a specific war, or holds itself as permanently neutral in all future conflicts (including avoiding entering into military alliances such as NATO). The exact nature of neutrality can differ between the interpretations of various countries. Some, such as Costa Rica have demilitarized whereas Switzerland
Switzerland
holds to 'armed neutrality' in which it deters aggression with a sizeable military while barring itself from foreign deployment
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Lucius Of Britain
Lucius (Welsh: Lles ap Coel) is a legendary 2nd-century King of the Britons and saint traditionally credited with introducing Christianity into Britain. Lucius is first mentioned in a 6th-century version of the Liber Pontificalis, which says that he sent a letter to Pope Eleutherius asking to be made a Christian. The story became widespread after it was repeated in the 8th century by Bede, who added the detail that after Eleutherius granted Lucius' request, the Britons followed their king in conversion and maintained the Christian faith until the Diocletianic Persecution
Diocletianic Persecution
of 303
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Germany
Coordinates: 51°N 9°E / 51°N 9°E / 51; 9Federal Republic
Republic
of Germany Bundesrepublik Deutschland (German)[a]FlagCoat of armsMotto:  "Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit" (de facto) "Unity and Justice and Freedom"Anthem: "Deutschlandlied" (third verse only)[b] "Song of Germany"Location of  Germany  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)Location of
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Rhine Crisis
The Rhine crisis of 1840 was a diplomatic crisis between the Kingdom of France and the German Confederation, caused by the attempt by the French prime minister Adolphe Thiers to use the threat of an invasion of Germany as leverage in a dispute over the Near East. The territories of the Left Bank of the Rhine, which French troops had conquered in 1795, had been returned to German (mostly Prussian) control after the 1815 Congress of Vienna, forming the Rhine Province. After a diplomatic defeat in the Oriental Crisis of 1840 France shifted its focus to the Rhine, and the French government, led by Adolphe Thiers, restated its claim to areas on the left bank, to re-establish the Rhine as a natural border. These claims reinforced ressentiment among the Germans against the French, and increased nationalism on both sides
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German Confederation
The German Confederation
Confederation
(German: Deutscher Bund) was an association of 39 German states in Central Europe, created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to coordinate the economies of separate German-speaking countries and to replace the former Holy Roman Empire, which had been dissolved in 1806.[1] Most historians have judged the Confederation
Confederation
to have been weak and ineffective, as well as an obstacle to the creation of a German nation-state.[2] The Confederation
Confederation
collapsed due to the rivalry between the Kingdom of Prussia and the Austrian Empire, warfare in the several European revolutions of 1848, the 1848–1849 German revolution, and the inability of the multiple members to compromise. In 1848, revolutions by liberals and nationalists were a failed attempt to establish a unified German state with a progressive liberal constitution under the Frankfurt Convention
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