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OFDMA
Orthogonal frequency-division multiple access
Orthogonal frequency-division multiple access
(OFDMA) is a multi-user version of the popular orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) digital modulation scheme. Multiple access is achieved in OFDMA by assigning subsets of subcarriers to individual users
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Qualcomm
Qualcomm
Qualcomm
is an American multinational semiconductor and telecommunications equipment company that designs and markets wireless telecommunications products and services. It derives most of its revenue from chipmaking and the bulk of its profit from patent licensing businesses.[2] The company headquarters is located in San Diego, California, United States, and has 224 worldwide locations. The parent company is Qualcomm
Qualcomm
Incorporated (Qualcomm), which includes the Qualcomm
Qualcomm
Technology Licensing Division (QTL). Qualcomm's wholly owned subsidiary, Qualcomm
Qualcomm
Technologies, Inc
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Carrier Wave
In telecommunications, a carrier wave, carrier signal, or just carrier, is a waveform (usually sinusoidal) that is modulated (modified) with an input signal for the purpose of conveying information.[1] This carrier wave usually has a much higher frequency than the input signal does. The purpose of the carrier is usually either to transmit the information through space as an electromagnetic wave (as in radio communication), or to allow several carriers at different frequencies to share a common physical transmission medium by frequency division multiplexing (as, for example, a cable television system). The term is also used for an unmodulated emission in the absence of any modulating signal.[2] Most radio systems in the 20th century used frequency modulation (FM) or amplitude modulation (AM) to make the carrier carry information. The frequency of a radio or television station is actually the carrier wave's frequency
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Base Station Cell
A cell site or cell tower is a cellular-enabled mobile device site where antennae and electronic communications equipment are placed — typically on a radio mast, tower, or other raised structure — to create a cell (or adjacent cells) in a cellular network. The raised structure typically supports antennae and one or more sets of transmitter/receivers transceivers, digital signal processors, control electronics, a GPS receiver for timing (for CDMA2000/IS-95 or GSM systems), primary and backup electrical power sources, and sheltering.[1][third-party source needed] In Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) networks, the correct term is Base Transceiver Station (BTS), and colloquial synonyms are "mobile phone mast" or "base station"
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Fast Fourier Transform
A fast Fourier transform (FFT) is an algorithm that samples a signal over a period of time (or space) and divides it into its frequency components.[1] These components are single sinusoidal oscillations at distinct frequencies each with their own amplitude and phase. This transformation is illustrated in Diagram 1. Over the time period measured, the signal contains 3 distinct dominant frequencies. An FFT algorithm computes the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) of a sequence, or its inverse (IFFT). Fourier analysis
Fourier analysis
converts a signal from its original domain to a representation in the frequency domain and vice versa
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Forward Error Correction
In telecommunication, information theory, and coding theory, forward error correction (FEC) or channel coding[1] is a technique used for controlling errors in data transmission over unreliable or noisy communication channels. The central idea is the sender encodes the message in a redundant way by using an error-correcting code (ECC). The American mathematician Richard Hamming
Richard Hamming
pioneered this field in the 1940s and invented the first error-correcting code in 1950: the Hamming (7,4) code.[2] The redundancy allows the receiver to detect a limited number of errors that may occur anywhere in the message, and often to correct these errors without retransmission. FEC gives the receiver the ability to correct errors without needing a reverse channel to request retransmission of data, but at the cost of a fixed, higher forward channel bandwidth
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Frequency-selective Fading
In wireless communications, fading is variation or the attenuation of a signal with various variables. These variables include time, geographical position, and radio frequency. Fading
Fading
is often modeled as a random process. A fading channel is a communication channel that experiences fading. In wireless systems, fading may either be due to multipath propagation, referred to as multipath induced fading, weather (particularly rain), or shadowing from obstacles affecting the wave propagation, sometimes referred to as shadow fading.Contents1 Key concepts 2 Slow versus fast fading 3 Block fading 4 Selective fading 5 Fading
Fading
models 6 Mitigation 7 See also 8 References 9 Literature 10 External linksKey concepts[edit] The presence of reflectors in the environment surrounding a transmitter and receiver create multiple paths that a transmitted signal can traverse
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Fading
In wireless communications, fading is variation or the attenuation of a signal with various variables. These variables include time, geographical position, and radio frequency. Fading
Fading
is often modeled as a random process. A fading channel is a communication channel that experiences fading. In wireless systems, fading may either be due to multipath propagation, referred to as multipath induced fading, weather (particularly rain), or shadowing from obstacles affecting the wave propagation, sometimes referred to as shadow fading.Contents1 Key concepts 2 Slow versus fast fading 3 Block fading 4 Selective fading 5 Fading
Fading
models 6 Mitigation 7 See also 8 References 9 Literature 10 External linksKey concepts[edit] The presence of reflectors in the environment surrounding a transmitter and receiver create multiple paths that a transmitted signal can traverse
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System Spectral Efficiency
Spectral efficiency, spectrum efficiency or bandwidth efficiency refers to the information rate that can be transmitted over a given bandwidth in a specific communication system. It is a measure of how efficiently a limited frequency spectrum is utilized by the physical layer protocol, and sometimes by the media access control (the channel access protocol).[1]Contents1 Link spectral efficiency 2 System spectral efficiency or area spectral efficiency 3 Comparison table 4 See also 5 ReferencesLink spectral efficiency[edit] The link spectral efficiency of a digital communication system is measured in bit/s/Hz,[2] or, less frequently but unambiguously, in (bit/s)/Hz. It is the net bitrate (useful information rate excluding error-correcting codes) or maximum throughput divided by the bandwidth in hertz of a communication channel or a data link
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Quality Of Service
Quality of service
Quality of service
(QoS) is the description or measurement of the overall performance of a service, such as a telephony or computer network or a cloud computing service, particularly the performance seen by the users of the network. To quantitatively measure quality of service, several related aspects of the network service are often considered, such as packet loss, bit rate, throughput, transmission delay, availability, jitter, etc. In the field of computer networking and other packet-switched telecommunication networks, quality of service refers to traffic prioritization and resource reservation control mechanisms rather than the achieved service quality
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Radio Frequency
Radio
Radio
frequency (RF) is any of the electromagnetic wave frequencies that lie in the range extending from around 7004200000000000000♠20 kHz to 7011300000000000000♠300 GHz, roughly the frequencies used in radio communication.[1] The term does not have an official definition, and different sources specify slightly different upper and lower bounds for the frequency range. RF usually refers to electrical rather than mechanical oscillations. However, mechanical RF systems do exist (see mechanical filter and RF MEMS). Although radio frequency is a rate of oscillation, the term "radio frequency" or its abbreviation "RF" are used as a synonym for radio – i.e., to describe the use of wireless communication, as opposed to communication via electric wires
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Spectrum Pooling
Spectrum pooling is a spectrum management strategy in which multiple radio spectrum users can coexist within a single allocation of radio spectrum space.[1] One use of this technique is for primary users of a spectrum allocation to be able to rent out use of unused parts of their allocation to secondary users.[2] Spectrum pooling schemes generally require cognitive radio techniques to implement them.[3] References[edit]^ Weiss, T. A.; Jondral, F. K. (2004). "Spectrum pooling: an innovative strategy for the enhancement of spectrum efficiency". IEEE Communications Magazine. 42 (3): S8. doi:10.1109/MCOM.2004.1273768.  ^ Friedrich K. Jondral; Ulrich Berthold; Dennis Burgkhardt; Timo A. Weiß. "Dynamic Spectrum Access and Overlay Systems" (PDF).  ^ Friedrich K. Jondral (March 28, 2006). "Cognitive Radio – A Necessity for Spectrum Pooling" (PDF). Universität Karlsruhe Communications Engineering Lab. This article related to radio communications is a stub
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Amplitude Modulation
Amplitude
Amplitude
modulation (AM) is a modulation technique used in electronic communication, most commonly for transmitting information via a radio carrier wave. In amplitude modulation, the amplitude (signal strength) of the carrier wave is varied in proportion to that of the message signal being transmitted. The message signal is, for example, a function of the sound to be reproduced by a loudspeaker, or the light intensity of pixels of a television screen
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Wireless LAN
A wireless local area network (WLAN) is a wireless computer network that links two or more devices using wireless communication within a limited area such as a home, school, computer laboratory, or office building. This gives users the ability to move around within a local coverage area and yet still be connected to the network. Through a gateway, a WLAN can also provide a connection to the wider Internet. Most modern WLANs are based on IEEE 802.11
IEEE 802.11
standards and are marketed under the Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi
brand name. Wireless LANs have become popular for use in the home, due to their ease of installation and use
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IEEE 802.20
IEEE 802.20 or Mobile Broadband Wireless Access (MBWA) was a specification by the standard association of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) for mobile wireless Internet access networks. The main standard was published in 2008.[1] MBWA is no longer being actively developed. This wireless broadband technology is also known and promoted as iBurst (or HC-SDMA, High Capacity Spatial Division Multiple Access). It was originally developed by ArrayComm and optimizes the use of its bandwidth with the help of smart antennas. Kyocera is the manufacturer of iBurst devices. iBurst officially shut down on July 20th, 2017, however some areas around the country are still active but should be taken down by the end of 2017. Users were given a choice to keep their @iburst.co.za or @wbs.co.za
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Long-term Evolution
In telecommunication, Long-Term Evolution (LTE) is a standard for high-speed wireless communication for mobile devices and data terminals, based on the GSM/EDGE and UMTS/HSPA technologies. It increases the capacity and speed using a different radio interface together with core network improvements.[1][2] The standard is developed by the 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project) and is specified in its Release 8 document series, with minor enhancements described in Release 9. LTE is the upgrade path for carriers with both GSM/UMTS networks and CDMA2000 networks. The different LTE frequencies and bands used in different countries mean that only multi-band phones are able to use LTE in all countries where it is supported. LTE is commonly marketed as 4G LTE, but it does not meet the technical criteria of a 4G wireless service, as specified in the 3GPP Release 8 and 9 document series for LTE Advanced
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