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Nymphaeum
A nymphaeum or nymphaion (Ancient Greek: νυμφαῖον), in ancient Greece and Rome, was a monument consecrated to the nymphs, especially those of springs. These monuments were originally natural grottoes, which tradition assigned as habitations to the local nymphs. They were sometimes so arranged as to furnish a supply of water, as at Pamphylian Side. A nymphaeum dedicated to a local water nymph, Coventina, was built along Hadrian's Wall, in the northernmost reach of the Roman Empire. Subsequently, artificial grottoes took the place of natural ones.Contents1 Roman period 2 Mosaics 3 Later periods 4 See also 5 Notes 6 ReferencesRoman period[edit] The nymphaeum in Jerash, Jordan
Jordan
(illustration, right), was constructed in 191 AD. The fountain was originally embellished with marble facing on the lower level, painted plaster on the upper level, and topped with a half-dome roof, forming a giant niche
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Constantinople
Κωνσταντινούπολις (in Greek) Constantinopolis (in Latin)Map of ConstantinopleShown within Asia
Asia
MinorAlternate name Byzantion (earlier Greek name), Miklagard/Miklagarth (Old Norse), Tsarigrad (Slavic), Basileuousa ("Queen of Cities"), Megalopolis ("the Great City")Location Istanbul, Istanbul
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Public Domain
The legal term public domain refers to works whose exclusive intellectual property rights have expired,[1] have been forfeited,[2] have been expressly waived, or are inapplicable.[3] For example, the works of Shakespeare
Shakespeare
and Beethoven, and most early silent films are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired.[1] Some works are not covered by copyright, and are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes,[4] and all computer software created prior to 1974.[5]
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Roman Gardens
Roman gardens
Roman gardens
and ornamental horticulture became highly developed under Roman civilization. The Gardens of Lucullus (Horti Lucullani), on the Pincian Hill
Pincian Hill
at the edge of Rome, introduced the Persian garden to Europe around 60 BC. It was seen as a place of peace and tranquility, a refuge from urban life, and a place filled with religious and symbolic meaning. As Roman culture developed and became increasingly influenced by foreign civilizations, the use of gardens expanded.Contents1 Influences 2 Uses 3 Places for a garden 4 Elements of a garden 5 Legacy 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External linksInfluences[edit] Roman gardens
Roman gardens
were influenced by Egyptian, Persian, and Greek gardening techniques. Formal gardens had existed in Egypt
Egypt
as early as 2800 BC
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Bartolomeo Ammanati
Bartolomeo Ammannati
Bartolomeo Ammannati
(18 June 1511 – 13 April 1592) was an Italian architect and sculptor, born at Settignano, near Florence. He studied under Baccio Bandinelli
Baccio Bandinelli
and Jacopo Sansovino
Jacopo Sansovino
(assisting on the design of the Library of St. Mark's, the Biblioteca Marciana, Venice) and closely imitated the style of Michelangelo.[1] He was more distinguished in architecture than in sculpture. He worked in Rome
Rome
in collaboration with Vignola and Vasari),[1] including designs for the Villa Giulia, but also for works and at Lucca. He labored during 1558–1570, in the refurbishment and enlargement of Pitti Palace, creating the courtyard consisting of three wings with rusticated facades, and one lower portico leading to the amphitheatre in the Boboli Gardens. His design mirrored the appearance of the main external façade of Pitti
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Eusebius
Eusebius
Eusebius
of Caesarea (/juːˈsiːbiəs/; Greek: Εὐσέβιος τῆς Καισαρείας, Eusébios tés Kaisareías; AD 260/265 – 339/340), also known as Eusebius
Eusebius
Pamphili (from the Greek: Εὐσέβιος τοῦ Παμϕίλου), was a historian of Christianity, exegete, and Christian polemicist. He became the bishop of Caesarea Maritima
Caesarea Maritima
about 314 AD. Together with Pamphilus, he was a scholar of the Biblical canon
Biblical canon
and is regarded as an extremely learned Christian of his time.[1] He wrote Demonstrations of the Gospel, Preparations for the Gospel, and On Discrepancies between the Gospels, studies of the Biblical text
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Basilica
A basilica is a type of building, usually a church, that is typically rectangular with a central nave and aisles, usually with a slightly raised platform and an apse at one or both ends. In Europe and the Americas it is the most common architectural style for churches though this building plan has become less dominant in new buildings since the later 20th century. Today the term basilica is often used to refer to any large, ornate church building, especially Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
and Eastern Orthodox, even if it does not strictly follow this style. The basilican architectural style originated in ancient Rome and was originally used for public buildings where courts were held, as well as serving other official and public functions. The basilica was centrally located in every Roman town, usually adjacent to the main forum
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Christian
A Christian
Christian
(/ˈkrɪstʃən, -tiən/ ( listen)) is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus
Jesus
Christ
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Issy-les-Moulineaux
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. Issy-les-Moulineaux
Issy-les-Moulineaux
(French pronunciation: ​[isi le mulino]) is a commune in the southwestern suburban area of Paris, France, lying on the left bank of the river Seine. It is one of Paris
Paris
entrances and is located 6.6 km (4.1 mi) from Notre-Dame Church, which is considered Kilometre Zero
Kilometre Zero
of France
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Mosaic
A mosaic is a piece of art or image made from the assemblage of small pieces of colored glass, stone, or other materials. It is often used in decorative art or as interior decoration. Most mosaics are made of small, flat, roughly square, pieces of stone or glass of different colors, known as tesserae. Some, especially floor mosaics, are made of small rounded pieces of stone, and called "pebble mosaics". Mosaics have a long history, starting in Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in the 3rd millennium BC. Pebble mosaics were made in Tiryns
Tiryns
in Mycenean Greece; mosaics with patterns and pictures became widespread in classical times, both in Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece
and Ancient Rome. Early Christian basilicas from the 4th century onwards were decorated with wall and ceiling mosaics
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Tivoli, Italy
Tivoli (/ˈtɪvəli/; Italian: [ˈtiːvoli]; Latin: Tibur) is a town and comune in Lazio, central Italy, about 30 kilometres (19 miles) east-north-east of Rome, at the falls of the Aniene
Aniene
river where it issues from the Sabine
Sabine
hills. The city offers a wide view over the Roman Campagna.Contents1 History1.1 Roman age 1.2 Middle Ages 1.3 Renaissance 1.4 Modern times2 Geography2.1 Climate 2.2 Main sights3 Economy and infrastructure 4 Influences 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit] Gaius Julius Solinus cites Cato the Elder's lost Origines for the story that the city was founded by Catillus the Arcadian, a son of Amphiaraus, who came there having escaped the slaughter at Thebes, Greece
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Hadrian's Villa
Hadrian's Villa
Villa
( Villa
Villa
Adriana in Italian) is a large Roman archaeological complex at Tivoli, Italy
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Domitian
14 September 81 – 18 September 96 (15 years)Predecessor TitusSuccessor NervaBorn (51-10-24)24 October 51 RomeDied 18 September 96(96-09-18) (aged 44) RomeBurial RomeWife Domitia Longina
Domitia Longina
(70–96)Issue son (80–83)Full name Titus
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Africa
Africa
Africa
is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (the first being Asia
Asia
in both categories). At about 30.3 million km2 (11.7 million square miles) including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earth's total surface area and 20% of its total land area.[3] With 1.2 billion[1] people as of 2016, it accounts for about 16% of the world's human population. The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the north, both the Suez Canal and the Red Sea
Red Sea
along the Sinai Peninsula
Sinai Peninsula
to the northeast, the Indian Ocean
Ocean
to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west. The continent includes Madagascar
Madagascar
and various archipelagos
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Ancient Greek Language
The Ancient Greek language
Greek language
includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece
Greece
and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BC), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BC), and Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
(Koine Greek, 3rd century BC to the 4th century AD). It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek and succeeded by medieval Greek. Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek
Attic Greek
and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek
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