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Nyanasamvara Suvaddhana
Somdet Phra Nyanasamvara[a] (Thai: สมเด็จพระญาณสังวร; RTGS: Somdet Phra Yannasangwon; 3 October 1913 – 24 October 2013), né Charoen Khachawat (Thai: เจริญ คชวัตร)[1] and dharma name Suvaḍḍhano (Thai: สุวฑฺฒโน), was the 19th Supreme Patriarch of Thailand. He was appointed to the position in 1989 by King Bhumibol Adulyadej. He turned 100 in October 2013, and died later the same month.[2]Contents1 Early life 2 Rise through the ranks 3 Achievements and challenges 4 Later life 5 Titles and Styles 6 Ancestry 7 Notes 8 References 9 External linksEarly life[edit] Somdet Phra Nyanasamvara, the 19th monk since the reign of Rama I
Rama I
to hold the title of Supreme Buddhist Patriarch (Sangharaja) of Thailand, was born on 3 October 1913 in Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand
Thailand
(at about 4 a.m., in the modern calendar, 4 October)
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Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
(/ˈbʊdɪzəm, ˈbuː-/)[1][2] is a religion[3][4] and dharma that encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on original teachings attributed to the Buddha and resulting interpreted philosophies. Buddhism
Buddhism
originated in Ancient India
India
sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, from where it spread through much of Asia, whereafter it declined in India
India
during the Middle Ages. Two major extant branches of Buddhism
Buddhism
are generally recognized by scholars: Theravada
Theravada
(Pali: "The School of the Elders") and Mahayana
Mahayana
(Sanskrit: "The Great Vehicle")
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Śūnyatā
Śūnyatā
Śūnyatā
(Sanskrit; Pali: suññatā), translated into English most often as emptiness[1] and sometimes voidness,[2] is a Buddhist concept which has multiple meanings depending on its doctrinal context. It is either an ontological feature of reality, a meditation state, or a phenomenological analysis of experience. In Theravada
Theravada
Buddhism, suññatā often refers to the not-self (Pāli: anattā, Sanskrit: anātman)[note 1] nature of the five aggregates of experience and the six sense spheres
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List Of Buddhists
This is a list of notable Buddhists, encompassing all the major branches of the religion (i.e. in Buddhism), and including interdenominational and eclectic Buddhist practitioners
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Dharma
Dharma
Dharma
(/ˈdɑːrmə/;[8] Sanskrit: धर्म, translit. dharma, pronounced [dʱəɾmə] ( listen); Pali: धम्म, translit. dhamma, translit
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Glossary Of Buddhism
Some Buddhist
Buddhist
terms and concepts lack direct translations into English that cover the breadth of the original term. Below are given a number of important Buddhist
Buddhist
terms, short definitions, and the languages in which they appear
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Four Noble Truths
The Four Noble Truths
Four Noble Truths
refer to and express the basic orientation of Buddhism[1] in a short expression:[2][note 1] we crave and cling to impermanent states and things,[3] which are dukkha,[4] "incapable of satisfying"[web 1] and painful.[web 1][3][5][6][7][web 2] This craving keeps us caught in samsara,[note 2] the endless cycle of repeated rebirth and dying again, and the dukkha that comes with it.[note 3] There is, however, a way to end this cycle,[8][note 4] namely by attaining nirvana, cessation of craving, whereafter rebirth and associated dukkha will no longer arise again.[note 5][9] This can be accomplish
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Skandha
Skandhas (Sanskrit) or khandhas (Pāḷi) means "heaps, aggregates, collections, groupings".[1] In Buddhism, it refers to the five aggregates concept that asserts five factors constitute and completely explain a sentient being’s mental and physical existence[2][3][4]. The five aggregates or heaps are: form (or matter or body) (rupa), sensations (or feelings, received from form) (vedana), perceptions (samjna), mental activity or formations (sankhara), and consciousness (vijnana).[5][6][7] The skandhas refute the idea of a "being or individual", and complements the anatta doctrine of Buddhism
Buddhism
which asserts that all thi
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Impermanence
Impermanence, also called Anicca or Anitya,[1] is one of the essential doctrines and a part of three marks of existence in Buddhism.[2][3][4] The doctrine asserts that all of conditioned existence, without exception, is "transient, evanescent, inconstant".[2] All temporal things, whether material or mental, are compounded objects in a continuous change of condition, subject to decline and destruction.[2][5] The concept of impermanence is also found in various schools of Hinduism and Jainism.[6][7] Anicca or impermanence is understood in Buddhism
Buddhism
as the first of three marks of existence, the other two being dukkha (suffering, pain, unsatisfactoriness) and anatta (non-self, non-soul, no essence).[4][3][8] All physical and mental events, states Buddhism, come into being and dissolve.[9] Human life embodies this flux in the aging process, the cycle of repeated birth and death (Samsara), nothing lasts, and everything decays
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Dukkha
Dukkha
Dukkha
(/ˈduːkə/; Pāli; Sanskrit: duḥkha; Tibetan: སྡུག་བསྔལ་ sdug bsngal, pr. "duk-ngel") is an important Buddhist
Buddhist
concept, commonly translated as "suffering", "pain", "unsatisfactoriness" or "stress".[1][2][3][4] It refers to the fundamental unsatisfactoriness and painfulness of mundane life. It is the first of the Four Noble Truths
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Anatta
In Buddhism, the term anattā (Pali) or anātman (Sanskrit) refers to the doctrine of "non-self", that there is no unchanging, permanent self, soul or essence in living beings.[1][2] It is one of the seven beneficial perceptions in Buddhism,[3] and along with Dukkha (suffering) and Anicca
Anicca
(impermanence), it is one of three Right Understandings about the three marks of existence.[1][4] The Buddhist concept of Anattā or Anātman is one of the fundamental differences between Buddhism
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Pratītyasamutpāda
Pratītyasamutpāda
Pratītyasamutpāda
(Sanskrit: प्रतीत्यसमुत्पाद pratītyasamutpāda; Pali: पटिच्चसमुप्पाद paṭiccasamuppāda), commonly translated as dependent origination, or dependent arising, is the principle that all dharmas ("phenomena") arise in dependence upon other dharmas: "if this exists, that exists; if this ceases to exist, that also ceases to exist". The principle is applied in the twelve links of dependent origination doctrine in Buddhism, which describes the chain of causes which result in rebirth and dukkha (suffering). By breaking the chain, liberation from suffering can be attained. Additionally, one could be seen to reach a level of consciousness associated with ascendance.[1] Everything except nirvana (nibbana) is conditioned by Pratītyasamutpāda, asserts Buddhism
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Middle Way
The Middle Way
Middle Way
or Middle Path (Pali: Majjhimāpaṭipadā; Sanskrit: Madhyamāpratipad[1][a]; Tibetan: དབུ་མའི་ལམ།, THL: Umélam; Chinese: 中道; Vietnamese: Trung đạo; Thai: มัชฌิมาปฏิปทา) is the term that Gautama Buddha used to describe the character of the Noble Eightfold Path
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Karma In Buddhism
Karma
Karma
(Sanskrit, also karman, Pāli: kamma) is a Sanskrit
Sanskrit
term that literally means "action" or "doing". In the Buddhist
Buddhist
tradition, karma refers to action driven by intention (cetanā) which leads to future consequences
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Gautama Buddha
Gautama Buddha[note 3] (c. 563/480 – c. 483/400 BCE), also known as Siddhārtha Gautama,[note 4] Shakyamuni Buddha,[4][note 5] or simply the Buddha, after the title of Buddha, was an ascetic (śramaṇa) and sage,[4] on whose teachings Buddhism
Buddhism
was founded.[5] He is believed to have lived and taught mostly in the eastern part of ancient India sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE.[6][note 6] Gautama taught a Middle Way
Middle Way
between sensual indulgence and the severe asceticism found in the śramaṇa movement[7] common in his region. He later taught throughout other regions of eastern India
India
such as Magadha
Magadha
and Kosala.[6][8] Gautama is the primary figure in Buddhism
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Rebirth (Buddhism)
Rebirth in Buddhism
Buddhism
refers to its teaching that the actions of a person lead to a new existence after death, in endless cycles called saṃsāra.[1][2] This cycle is considered to be dukkha, unsatisfactory and painful
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