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Nur Jehan
Nur Jahan
Nur Jahan
(born Mehr-un-Nissa) (31 May 1577 – 17 December 1645) was the twentieth (and last) wife of the Mughal emperor Jahangir. Nur Jahan
Nur Jahan
was born Mehr-un-Nissa, the daughter of a Grand Vizier (Minister) who served under Akbar. Nur Jahan, meaning 'Light of the World', was married at age 17 to a Persian soldier Sher Afgan, governor of Bihar, an important Mughal province. She was a married woman when Prince Salim (the future Emperor Jahangir), Akbar's eldest son, fell in love with her. Two years after Akbar
Akbar
died and Salim became Emperor, Sher Afgan met his death. However, three more years were to pass before a grieving Nur Jahan
Nur Jahan
consented to marry the Emperor Jahangir
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Noor Jahan (other)
Noor Jahan can refer to: Nur Jahan
Nur Jahan
(1577–1645), Mughal empress Nurjahan Murshid (1924–2003), Bangladeshi minister Nurjahan Begum (1925–2016), Bangladeshi journalist Noor Jehan
Noor Jehan
(1926–2000), Pakistani singer and actress Noor Jehan
Noor Jehan
Panezai (d. 2014), Pakistani politicianThis disambiguation page lists articles about people with the same name
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Qutubuddin Koka
Qutb-ud-Din Khan Kokah (13 August 1569 – 20 May 1607) was the first Mughal subahdar (provincial governor) of Bengal Subah
Bengal Subah
(Mughal province of Bengal) during the reign of emperor Jahangir. He was appointed governor of Bengal
Bengal
on 2 September 1606 and died in office on 20 May 1607.[1]Contents1 Early life 2 Subahdar
Subahdar
of Bengal 3 Progeny 4 Emperor Jahangir's foster mother 5 See also 6 ReferencesEarly life[edit] Qutb-ud-Din Khan Kokah's original name was Shaikh Khubu. His father was a Mughal courtier in the court of emperor Akbar
Akbar
and his mother was daughter of Shaikh Salim Chishti. He was the Kokah (foster brother) of emperor Jahangir. The title of Qutb-ud-Din Khan was conferred upon him by Prince Salim (Jahangir) during his rebellion against his father Akbar
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Kabul
Kabul
Kabul
(/ˈkɑːbʊl/; Persian: [ˈkɒːbul]) is the capital of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and its largest city, located in the eastern section of the country. It is also a municipality, forming part of the greater Kabul
Kabul
Province. According to estimates in 2015, the population of Kabul
Kabul
is 4.635 million,[1] which includes all the major ethnic groups.[2] Rapid urbanization had made Kabul
Kabul
the world's 75th largest city.[3] Kabul
Kabul
is located high up in a narrow valley between the Hindu Kush mountains, with an elevation of 1,790 metres (5,873 ft) making it one of the highest capitals in the world. The city is said to be over 3,500 years old, mentioned since at least the time of the Achaemenid Empire. It is at a strategic location along the trade routes of South and Central Asia, and a key location of the ancient Silk Road
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Arabic Language
Arabic
Arabic
(Arabic: العَرَبِيَّة‎, al-ʻarabiyyah, [al ʕaraˈbijja] (listen) or عَرَبِيّ‎, ʻarabī, [ˈʕarabiː] (listen) or [ʕaraˈbij]) is a Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.[5] It is now the lingua franca of the Arab world.[6] It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living in the area bounded by Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in the east and the Anti- Lebanon
Lebanon
mountains in the west, in Northwestern Arabia
Arabia
and in the Sinai Peninsula. The ISO classifies Arabic
Arabic
as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic,[7] which is derived from Classical Arabic
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Persian Language
Persian (/ˈpɜːrʒən/ or /ˈpɜːrʃən/), also known by its endonym Farsi[8][9] (فارسی fārsi [fɒːɾˈsiː] ( listen)), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(officially known as Dari since 1958),[10] and Tajikistan
Tajikistan
(officially known as Tajiki since the Soviet era),[11] and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran
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Art
Art
Art
is a diverse range of human activities in creating visual, auditory or performing artifacts (artworks), expressing the author's imaginative or technical skill, intended to be appreciated for their beauty or emotional power.[1][2] In their most general form these activities include the production of works of art, the criticism of art, the study of the history of art, and the aesthetic dissemination of art. The oldest documented forms of art are visual arts, which include creation of images or objects in fields including today painting, sculpture, printmaking, photography, and other visual media.
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Literature
Literature, most generically, is any body of written works. More restrictively, literature refers to writing considered to be an art form or any single writing deemed to have artistic or intellectual value, often due to deploying language in ways that differ from ordinary usage. Its Latin root literatura/litteratura (derived itself from littera: letter or handwriting) was used to refer to all written accounts. The concept has changed meaning over time to include texts that are spoken or sung (oral literature), and non-written verbal art forms. Developments in print technology have allowed an ever-growing distribution and proliferation of written works, culminating in electronic literature. Literature
Literature
is classified according to whether it is fiction or non-fiction, and whether it is poetry or prose
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Music
Music
Music
is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound organized in time. The common elements of music are pitch (which governs melody and harmony), rhythm (and its associated concepts tempo, meter, and articulation), dynamics (loudness and softness), and the sonic qualities of timbre and texture (which are sometimes termed the "color" of a musical sound). Different styles or types of music may emphasize, de-emphasize or omit some of these elements. Music
Music
is performed with a vast range of instruments and vocal techniques ranging from singing to rapping; there are solely instrumental pieces, solely vocal pieces (such as songs without instrumental accompaniment) and pieces that combine singing and instruments
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Dance
Dance
Dance
is a performing art form consisting of purposefully selected sequences of human movement. This movement has aesthetic and symbolic value, and is acknowledged as dance by performers and observers within a particular culture.[nb 1] Dance
Dance
can be categorized and described by its choreography, by its repertoire of movements, or by its historical period or place of origin. An important distinction is to be drawn between the contexts of theatrical and participatory dance,[4] although these two categories are not always completely separate; both may have special functions, whether social, ceremonial, competitive, erotic, martial, or sacred/liturgical
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Ismail II
Ismail Mirza (Persian: اسماعیل میرزا‎) later known by his first dynastic name of Ismail II
Ismail II
(شاه اسماعیل دوم) (31 May 1537[1]– 24 November 1577) was the third Safavid
Safavid
Shah
Shah
of Iran, ruling from 1576 to 1577.Contents1 Early life 2 Reign 3 Family3.1 Offspring4 See also 5 References 6 SourcesEarly life[edit]Picture of the Qahqaheh Castle.Ismail was the son of Shah
Shah
Tahmasp I
Tahmasp I
by an Iraqi Turkoman
Iraqi Turkoman
mother from the area of Mosul, Sultanum Begum Mawsillu.[2] In 1547, he was appointed governor of the province of Shirvan
Shirvan
where he led several expeditions against the Ottomans
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Mughal Army
The Army of the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
was the force by which the Mughal emperors established their empire in the 15th century and expanded it to its greatest extent at the beginning of the 18th century. Although its origins, like the Mughals themselves, were in the cavalry-based armies of central Asia, its essential form and structure was established by the empire's third emperor, Akbar. The army had no regimental structure and the soldiers were not directly recruited by the emperor. Instead, individuals, such as nobles or local leaders, would recruit their own troops, referred to as a mansab, and contribute them to the army.Contents1 Origin 2 Organisation and troop types2.1 Standing army 2.2 Mansabdars 2.3 Branches2.3.1 Cavalry2.4 Infantry 2.5 Artillery 2.6 Navy3 See also 4 References 5 Further readingOrigin The Mughals originated in Central Asia. Like many Central Asian armies, the mughal army was horse-oriented
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Mewar
Mewar
Mewar
or Mewāḍ is a region of south-central Rajasthan
Rajasthan
state in western India. It includes the present-day districts of Bhilwara, Chittorgarh, Rajsamand, Udaipur, Pirawa Tehsil of Jhalawar District of Rajasthan, Neemuch and Mandsaur of Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
and some parts of Gujarat. For centuries, the region was ruled by Rajputs
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Faujdar
Faujdar
Faujdar
was a title awarded by Mughal and other Muslim
Muslim
rulers in South Asia to garrison commanders. In pre-Mughal times, the term referred to a military officer but did not refer to a specific rank. With the administrative reforms performed by Mughal emperor Akbar, this rank was systemised. The empire as a whole was divided into provinces known as subah, which were further divided into sarkars, and then parganas. One of the names used to describe the officer posted to act as the administrator of the sarkar was faujdar. Faujdar
Faujdar
is mostly used as a title by Jat
Jat
gotras such as Sogarwar, Chahar, Sinsinwar, Kuntal throughout Northern India
Northern India
and Pakistan
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Mirza Ghias Beg
Mirza
Mirza
Ghiyas Beg (Persian: مرزا غياث بيگ‎), also known by his title of I'timad-ud-Daulah (اعتمادالسلطنه آگهی الدوله), was an important Persian official in the Mughal empire, whose children served as wives, mothers, and generals of the Mughal emperors. Born in Tehran, Ghiyas Beg belonged to a family of poets and high officials. Nevertheless, his fortunes fell into disfavor after the death of his father in 1576. Along with his pregnant wife Asmat Begum, and his three children, they immigrated to India. There he was received by the Mughal emperor Akbar
Akbar
(r. 1556-1605), and was enrolled into his service. During the latters reign, Ghiyas Beg was appointed treasurer for the province of Kabul. His fortunes further increased during the reign of Akbar's son and successor Jahangir
Jahangir
(r
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Lady-in-waiting
A lady-in-waiting or court lady is a female personal assistant at a court, royal or feudal, attending on a royal woman or a high-ranking noblewoman. Historically, in Europe, a lady-in-waiting was often a noblewoman, but of lower rank than the woman on whom she attended. Although she may or may not have received compensation for the service she rendered, a lady-in-waiting was considered more of a companion to her mistress than a servant. In other parts of the world outside Europe, the lady-in-waiting, often referred to as palace woman, was often in practice a servant or a slave rather than a high-ranking woman, but still had about the same tasks, functioning as companion and secretary to her mistress
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