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Norwegian Resistance Movement
The Norwegian resistance to the occupation of Norway
Norway
by Nazi Germany began after Operation Weserübung
Operation Weserübung
in 1940 and ended in 1945
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Halvdan Koht
Halvdan Koht
Halvdan Koht
(7 July 1873 – 12 December 1965) was a Norwegian historian and politician representing the Labour Party. Born in the north of Norway
Norway
to a fairly distinguished family, he soon became interested in politics and history. Starting his political career in the Liberal Party, he switched to the Labour Party around the turn of the 20th century. He represented that party in the Bærum municipal council for parts of the interwar period. He was never elected a member of Parliament, but served nonetheless as Norwegian Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1935 to 1941. In the latter capacity he sought to preserve Norway's neutrality in the Second World War, an action that garnered him political infamy. Growing discontentment with Koht's political decisions ultimately led to his exit from the cabinet
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Nasjonal Samling
Nasjonal Samling
Nasjonal Samling
(Norwegian pronunciation: [nɑʂuˈnɑːl ˈsɑmliŋ], NS; literally "National Union"), was a Norwegian far-right party active from 1933 to 1945. It was the only legal party of Norway
Norway
from 1942 to 1945. It was founded by former minister of defence Vidkun Quisling
Vidkun Quisling
and a group of supporters such as Johan Bernhard Hjort – who led the party's paramilitary wing (Hirden) for a short time before leaving the party in 1937 after various internal conflicts. The party celebrated its founding on 17 May, Norway's national holiday, but was founded on 13 May 1933.Contents1 Pre-war politics 2 During the German occupation 3 Post-war 4 Uniforms and insignia 5 References 6 Further readingPre-war politics[edit] The party never gained direct political influence, but it made its mark on Norwegian politics nonetheless
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Johan Nygaardsvold
Johan Nygaardsvold
Johan Nygaardsvold
(Norwegian pronunciation: [ˈnyːɡɔːʂvɔl]; 6 September 1879 – 13 March 1952) was a Norwegian politician from the Labour Party. He was Prime Minister of Norway
Prime Minister of Norway
from 1935 to 1945 (from 1940 to 1945 in exile in London), as head of the Nygaardsvold cabinet.[1] Political career[edit] Main article: Cabinet Nygaardsvold Nygaardsvold was born in Hommelvik, the main center of the municipality of Malvik
Malvik
in the county of Sør-Trøndelag
Sør-Trøndelag
to a tenant farmer and his wife. His father was a founding member of the first labor union in the area, and Johan took his first job as a lumber mill worker when he was 12.Nygaardsvold campaign posterNygaardsvold emigrated to Canada
Canada
in 1902, where he took the name John Westby
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Olav V Of Norway
Olav V (born Prince Alexander of Denmark; 2 July 1903 – 17 January 1991) was King of Norway
Norway
from 1957 until his death. Olav was the only child of Haakon VII and Maud of Wales. He became heir apparent to the Norwegian throne when his father was elected King of Norway
Norway
in 1905. He was the first heir to the Norwegian throne to be brought up in Norway
Norway
since Olav IV, and his parents made sure he was given as Norwegian an upbringing as possible. In preparation for his future role, he attended both civilian and military schools. In 1929, he married his first cousin Princess Märtha of Sweden. During World War II his leadership was much appreciated and he was appointed Norwegian Chief of Defence in 1944
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Josef Terboven
Josef Antonius Heinrich Terboven (23 May 1898 – 8 May 1945) was a Nazi leader, best known as the Reichskommissar
Reichskommissar
for Norway
Norway
during the German occupation of Norway
Norway
and the Quisling regime.Contents1 Early life 2 Nazi Party
Nazi Party
career 3 Rule of Norway3.1 Impact of his rule on prison camps4 Death 5 Portrayal in popular culture 6 Sources and referencesEarly life[edit] Terboven (from the Dutch ter Boven) was born in Essen, Germany, as the son of minor landed gentry of Dutch descent. He served in the German field artillery and nascent air force in World War I
World War I
and was awarded the Iron Cross, rising to the rank of lieutenant
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Wilhelm Rediess
Friedrich Wilhelm Rediess
Wilhelm Rediess
(10 October 1900 – 8 May 1945) was the SS and Police Leader during the German occupation of Norway
Norway
in the Second World War. He was also the commander of all SS troops stationed in occupied Norway, assuming command on 22 June 1940 until his death in 1945.Contents1 Life 2 World War II 3 See also 4 ReferencesLife[edit] Rediess was born in Heinsberg, Prussia, German Empire, the son of a court employee. After school, Rediess became an electrician. In June 1918, he enlisted in the German army, serving as an infantryman until the end of the First World War
First World War
in November 1918. He then worked as an electrician until losing his job in the German economic crisis of 1929.[1] In May 1925, Rediess joined the SA and in December 1925 was approved for membership in the Nazi Party
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Nikolaus Von Falkenhorst
Nikolaus von Falkenhorst
Nikolaus von Falkenhorst
(17 January 1885 – 18 June 1968) was a German general and a war criminal during World War II. He planned and commanded the German invasion of Denmark and Norway in 1940, and was commander of German troops during the occupation of Norway from 1940 to 1944. After the war, Falkenhorst was tried by a joint British-Norwegian military tribunal for war crimes. He was convicted and sentenced to death in 1946. The sentence was later commuted to twenty years' imprisonment. Falkenhorst was released in 1953 and died in 1968.Contents1 Career 2 Trial and conviction 3 Awards 4 ReferencesCareer[edit] Falkenhorst was born in Breslau
Breslau
(now Wrocław, Poland) into a noble family with military roots, the Jastrzembski of Bad Königsdorff-Jastrzemb in Upper Silesia
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British Occupation Of The Faroe Islands
A job, or occupation, is a person's role in society. More specifically, a job is an activity, often regular and often performed in exchange for payment ("for a living"). Many people have multiple jobs (e.g., parent, homemaker, and employee). A person can begin a job by becoming an employee, volunteering, starting a business, or becoming a parent. The duration of a job may range from temporary (e.g., hourly odd jobs) to a lifetime (e.g., judges). An activity that requires a person's mental or physical effort is work (as in "a day's work"). If a person is trained for a certain type of job, they may have a profession. Typically, a job would be a subset of someone's career
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Hirden
Hirden[1] (the hird) was a uniformed paramilitary organisation during the occupation of Norway
Norway
by Nazi Germany, modelled the same way as the German Sturmabteilungen.[2]Contents1 Overview 2 History 3 Gallery 4 Ranks and rank insignia 5 See also 6 References 7 Sources 8 External linksOverview[edit] Vidkun Quisling's fascist party Nasjonal Samling
Nasjonal Samling
frequently used words and symbols from the old Norse Viking era. During the Second World War, membership was compulsory for all Nasjonal Samling
Nasjonal Samling
members. In total, about 8,500 Norwegians were members of Hirden
Hirden
during the war. The organisation was dissolved after the liberation, and many of its former members were prosecuted and convicted for treason and collaboration. History[edit] During the German occupation Hirden
Hirden
got a more military slant
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Nortraship
The Norwegian Shipping and Trade Mission (Nortraship) was established in London
London
in April 1940 to administer the Norwegian merchant fleet outside German-controlled areas. Nortraship
Nortraship
operated some 1,000 vessels and was the largest shipping company in the world.[citation needed] It made a major contribution to the Allied war effort. The British politician Philip Noel-Baker, Baron Noel-Baker, commented after the war that "The first great defeat for Hitler
Hitler
was the battle of Britain. It was a turning point in history. If we had not had the Norwegian fleet of tankers on our side, we should not have had the aviation spirit to put our Hawker Hurricanes
Hawker Hurricanes
and our Spitfires
Spitfires
into the sky
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Otto Ruge
World War IINorwegian CampaignAwards incomplete Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav
Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav
Grand cross with collar Otto Ruge
Otto Ruge
(9 January 1882 – 15 August 1961) was a Norwegian general. He was Commander-in-chief
Commander-in-chief
of the Royal Norwegian Armed Forces after Nazi Germany's assault on Norway
Norway
in April 1940.[1]Contents1 Background 2 World War II 3 Evaluation of strategy 4 Awards and honors 5 Selected works 6 References 7 Other sources 8 External linksBackground[edit] Ruge grew up in Kristiania
Kristiania
(Oslo) in a family with strong military traditions. He attended Oslo
Oslo
Cathedral School. Already 20 years old, he was a military officer. He attended the Norwegian Military College (1905) and took the General
General
Staff exam (1915)
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Henry Rinnan
Henry Oliver Rinnan (14 May 1915 – 1 February 1947) was a notorious Norwegian Gestapo
Gestapo
agent in the area around Trondheim, Norway
Norway
during World War II. Rinnan led a group called Sonderabteilung Lola. This group, known as Rinnanbanden among Norwegians, had fifty known members. Among them were Karl Dolmen, Arild Hjulstad-Østby and Ivar and Kitty Grande. Biography[edit] Born in Levanger
Levanger
on 14 May 1915, Rinnan was the eldest of eight children in an impoverished family. Unusually short (1.61 metres – 5 ft 3 in), he was a loner during his childhood. He worked briefly for his uncle, but was sacked for theft. During the Winter War, Rinnan tried to enlist with the Finns to fight against the Soviet Union, but was rejected due to his poor physique. During the Norwegian Campaign
Norwegian Campaign
in 1940, he drove a truck for the Norwegian Army
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Military History Of Finland During World War II
Finland
Finland
participated in the Second World War, twice battling the Soviet Union, and then against Nazi Germany. As relations with the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
changed during the war, Finland
Finland
was placed in the unusual situation of being for, then against, then for, the overall interests of the Allied powers. The first two major conflicts were the defensive Winter War
Winter War
against an invasion by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1939–1940, followed by the Continuation War, alongside the Axis Powers
Axis Powers
against the Soviets, in 1941–1944
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World War II
Allied victoryCollapse of Nazi Germany Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires Dissolution of the League of Nations Creation of the United Nations Emergence of the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as superpowers Beginning of the Cold War
Cold War
(more...)ParticipantsAllied Powers Axis PowersCommanders and leadersMain Allied leaders Joseph Stalin Franklin D
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Jonas Lie (government Minister)
Jonas Lie (31 December 1899 – 11 May 1945) was a Norwegian councillor of state in the Nasjonal Samling
Nasjonal Samling
government of Vidkun Quisling in 1940, then acting councillor of state 1940–1941, and Minister of Police between 1941 and 1945 in the new Quisling government. Lie was the grandson of the novelist Jonas Lie and the son of the writer Erik Lie.Contents1 Early life 2 Fascism 3 Writing 4 References 5 External linksEarly life[edit] Raised in a family with close ties to Germany, Jonas Lie was a war correspondent on the Western front and Eastern front during World War I. He was a successful police officer in the 1930s. He was the police officer charged with accompanying Leon Trotsky
Leon Trotsky
on a freighter from Norway
Norway
to Mexico
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