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North Africa Campaign
Allied victoryFall of Italian Libya Surrender of all Axis forces in North Africa Eventual Allied invasion of SicilyTerritorial changes Former Italian Libya
Italian Libya
placed under British military administrationBelligerentsAllies British Commonwealth United Kingdom India  Southern Rhodesia Australia  Canada  New Zealand  South Africa United States[nb 1]  Free France Algeria[nb 1] Tunisia[nb 1] Morocco[nb 1] Poland Czechoslovak Legions  GreeceAxis Italy Libya Germany Vichy France[nb 2] Algeria[nb 1] Tunisia[nb 1] Morocco[nb 1]Commanders and leaders Harold Alexander Claude Auchinleck Archibald Wavell Bernard Montgomery Dwight D. Eisenhower George S
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Military Operations In North Africa During World War I
Conflicts took place in North Africa
North Africa
during World War I
World War I
(1914–1918), between the Entente and the Central powers. The Senussi
Senussi
of Libya sided with the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
against the British Empire
British Empire
and the Kingdom of Italy. On 14 November 1914, the Ottoman Sultan
Sultan
proclaimed Jihad
Jihad
and sought to create a diversion to draw British troops from the Sinai and Palestine Campaign. The Italian state wished to preserve the gains made in the Italo-Turkish War
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George S. Patton
Seventh United States Army Third United States Army Fifteenth United States ArmySee other commands304th Tank
Tank
Brigade 3rd Squadron, 3rd Cavalry 5th Cavalry Regiment 3d Cavalry Regiment 2nd Brigade, 2nd Armored Division 2nd Armored Division I Armored Corps Desert Training Center II CorpsBattles/warsSee battlesMexican RevolutionBattle of San MiguelitoWorld War ISaint Mihiel Campaign Meuse-Argonne CampaignWorld War IIOperation Torch North African Campaign Tunisia Campaign Sicily Campaign Lorraine Campaign Ardennes Campaign Rhineland Campaign Central Europe CampaignAwards Distinguished Service Cross (2) Distinguished Service Medal (3) Silver Star
Silver Star
(2) Legion of Merit Bronze Star Purple Heart Complete list of decorationsRelations George Patton IV
George Patton IV
(son) John K. Waters
John K. Waters
(son-in-law)SignatureGeneral George Smith Patton Jr
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Czechoslovak Government-in-exile
The Czechoslovak government-in-exile, sometimes styled officially as the Provisional Government of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
(Czech: Prozatímní státní zřízení československé), was an informal title conferred upon the Czechoslovak National Liberation Committee, initially by British diplomatic recognition. The name came to be used by other World War II
World War II
Allies as they subsequently recognised it. The Committee was originally created by the former Czechoslovak President, Edvard Beneš in Paris, France, in October 1939.[1] Unsuccessful negotiations with France for diplomatic status, as well as the impending Nazi occupation of France, forced the Committee to withdraw to London in 1940
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Kingdom Of Greece
The Kingdom of Greece
Greece
(Greek: Βασίλειον τῆς Ἑλλάδος [vaˈsiliɔn ˈtis ɛˈlaðɔs]) was a state established in 1832 at the Convention of London
London
by the Great Powers (the United Kingdom, Kingdom of France
France
and the Russian Empire). It was internationally recognised by the Treaty of Constantinople, where it also secured full independence from the Ottoman Empire. This event also marked the birth of the first fully independent Greek state since the fall of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
to the Ottomans in the mid-15th century. The Kingdom succeeded from the Greek provisional governments after the Greek War of Independence, and lasted until 1924
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Kingdom Of Italy
The Kingdom of Italy
Italy
(Italian: Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II
King Victor Emmanuel II
of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the Italian Republic. The state was founded as a result of the unification of Italy
Italy
under the influence of the Kingdom of Sardinia, which can be considered its legal predecessor state. Italy
Italy
declared war on Austria in alliance with Prussia in 1866 and received the region of Veneto
Veneto
following their victory. Italian troops entered Rome
Rome
in 1870, ending more than one thousand years of Papal temporal power
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Nazi Germany
Coordinates: 52°31′N 13°24′E / 52.517°N 13.400°E / 52.517; 13.400 "Drittes Reich" redirects here
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Vichy France
Vichy France (French: Régime de Vichy) is the common name of the French State (État français) headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain during World War II. It represented the unoccupied "Free Zone" (zone libre) in the southern part of metropolitan France and the French colonial empire. From 1940 to 1942, while the Vichy regime was the nominal government of all of France except Alsace-Lorraine, the German militarily occupied northern France. While Paris remained the de jure capital of France, the government chose to relocate to the town of Vichy, 360 km (220 mi) to the south in the zone libre, which thus became the de facto capital of the French State. Following the Allied landings in French North Africa in November 1942, southern France was also militarily occupied by Germany and Italy. Petain's regime remained in Vichy as the nominal government of France, albeit one that clearly operated as a de facto client state of Nazi Germany from November 1942 onward
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Harold Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander Of Tunis
Field Marshal Harold Rupert Leofric George Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis, KG, GCB, OM, GCMG, CSI, DSO, MC, CD, PC (10 December 1891 – 16 June 1969) was a senior British Army
British Army
officer who served with distinction in both the First World War
First World War
and the Second World War and, afterwards, as Governor General of Canada, the 17th since Canadian Confederation. Alexander was born in London, England, to aristocratic parents and was educated at Harrow before moving on to the Royal Military College, Sandhurst, for training as an army officer of the Irish Guards. He rose to prominence through his service in the First World War, receiving numerous honours and decorations, and continued his military career through various British campaigns across Europe and Asia
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Claude Auchinleck
First World WarMesopotamian campaign Battle of Hanna Second Battle of Kut Fall of BaghdadMohmand Campaign Second World WarNorwegian campaign North African CampaignAwardsKnight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath[4] Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Indian Empire[5] Companion of the Order of the Star of India[6] Distinguished Service Order[7] Officer of the Order of the British Empire Mentioned in Despatches
Mentioned in Despatches
(3)[7][8][9] Chief Commander of the Legion of Merit
Legion of Merit
(USA)[10] Virtuti Militari
Virtuti Militari
(Poland)[11] Order of the Star of Nepal
Order of the Star of Nepal
(Nepal)[12] Knight Grand Cross of Order of St. Olav
Order of St

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Bernard Montgomery
First World War Anglo-Irish War Arab revolt in Palestine Second World WarBattle of FranceBattle of Dunkirk Dunkirk evacuationNorth African CampaignBattle of Alam el Halfa Second Battle of El Alamein Battle of El AgheilaTunisian CampaignBattle of Medenine Battle of the Mareth LineSicilian Campaign Italian Campaign Western FrontOperation Overlord Battle for Caen Operation Goodwood Operation Cobra Battle of the Falaise Pocket Siegfried Line Campaign Operation Market Garden Clearing the Channel Coast Battle of the Bulge Operation VeritableInvasion of GermanyOperation Varsity Operation PlunderPalestine EmergencyAwards Knight of the Order of the Garter Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath Distinguished Service Order
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Dwight D. Eisenhower
World War II Supreme Allied Commander in EuropeD-Day Operation OverlordSurrender of Germany VE-DayCrusade in EuropePresident of the United StatesPresidencyFirst TermDraft movement1952 CampaignElection1st InaugurationKorean War Atoms for PeaceCold WarNew Look Domino theoryInterstate Highway SystemSecond Term1956 campaignElection2nd InaugurationEisenhower Doctrine Sputnik
Sputnik
crisis Missile gapNDEA NASA DARPACivil Rights Act of 1957 Little Rock NineU-2 incident Farewell AddressPost-PresidencyLegacy Presidential library and museum Tributes and memorialsv t eDwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (/ˈaɪzənhaʊ.ər/ EYE-zən-how-ər; October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American army general and statesman who served as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 to 1961
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François Darlan
Jean Louis Xavier François Darlan (7 August 1881 – 24 December 1942) was a French Admiral
Admiral
and political figure. He was Admiral
Admiral
of the Fleet and commander in chief of the French Navy
French Navy
in 1939 at the beginning of World War II. After France signed an armistice with Nazi Germany in 1940, Darlan served in the pro-German Vichy
Vichy
regime, becoming its deputy leader for a time. When the Allies invaded French North Africa in 1942, Darlan was the highest-ranking officer there, and a deal was made, giving him control of North African French forces in exchange for joining their side
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French Protectorate In Morocco
The French protectorate in Morocco
Morocco
(French: Protectorat français au Maroc; Arabic: حماية فرنسا في المغرب‎ Ḥimāyat Faransā fi-l-Maḡrib) was established by the Treaty of Fez
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Killed In Action
Killed in action (KIA) is a casualty classification generally used by militaries to describe the deaths of their own combatants at the hands of hostile forces.[1] The United States
United States
Department of Defense, for example, says that those declared KIA need not have fired their weapons but have been killed due to hostile attack. KIAs do not come from incidents such as accidental vehicle crashes and other "non-hostile" events or terrorism. KIA can be applied both to front-line combat troops and to naval, air and support troops. Someone who is killed in action during a particular event is denoted with a † (dagger) beside their name to signify their death in that event or events. Further, KIA denotes one to have been killed in action on the battlefield whereas died of wounds (DOW) relates to someone who survived to reach a medical treatment facility
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Poland
Coordinates: 52°N 20°E / 52°N 20°E / 52; 20 Republic
Republic
of Poland Rzeczpospolita
Rzeczpospolita
Polska  (
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