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Non-functional Requirements
In systems engineering and requirements engineering, a non-functional requirement (NFR) is a requirement that specifies criteria that can be used to judge the operation of a system, rather than specific behaviors. They are contrasted with functional requirements that define specific behavior or functions. The plan for implementing functional requirements is detailed in the system design. The plan for implementing non-functional requirements is detailed in the system architecture, because they are usually Architecturally Significant Requirements.[1] Broadly, functional requirements define what a system is supposed to do and non-functional requirements define how a system is supposed to be. Functional requirements are usually in the form of "system shall do <requirement>", an individual action or part of the system, perhaps explicitly in the sense of a mathematical function, a black box description input, output, process and control functional model or IPO Model
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Systems Engineering
Systems engineering
Systems engineering
is an interdisciplinary field of engineering and engineering management that focuses on how to design and manage complex systems over their life cycles. At its core, systems engineering utilizes systems thinking principles to organize this body of knowledge. Issues such as requirements engineering, reliability, logistics, coordination of different teams, testing and evaluation, maintainability and many other disciplines necessary for successful system development, design, implementation, and ultimate decommission become more difficult when dealing with large or complex projects. Systems engineering
Systems engineering
deals with work-processes, optimization methods, and risk management tools in such projects
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Maintainability
In engineering, maintainability is the ease with which a product can be maintained in order to:correct defects or their cause, repair or replace faulty or worn-out components without having to replace still working parts, prevent unexpected working condition, maximize a product's useful life, maximize efficiency, reliability, and safety, meet new requirements, make future maintenance easier, or cope with a changed environment.In some cases, maintainability involves a system of continuous improvement - learning from the past in order to improve the ability to maintain systems, or improve reliability of systems based on maintenance experience. In telecommunication and several other engineering fields, the term maintainability has the following meanings:A characteristic of design and installation, expressed as the probability that an item will be retained in or restored to a specified condition within a given period of time, when the maintenance is performed in accord
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Development Environment
In software deployment, an environment or tier is a computer system in which a computer program or software component is deployed and executed. In simple cases, such as developing and immediately executing a program on the same machine, there may be a single environment, but in industrial use the development environment (where changes are originally made) and production environment (what end users use) are separated; often with several stages in between. This structured release management process allows phased deployment (rollout), testing, and rollback in case of problems. Environments may vary significantly in size: the development environment is typically an individual developer's workstation, while the production environment may be a network of many geographically distributed machines in data centers, or virtual machines in cloud computing
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Disaster Recovery
Disaster
Disaster
recovery (DR) involves a set of policies, tools and procedures to enable the recovery or continuation of vital technology infrastructure and systems following a natural or human-induced disaster. Disaster
Disaster
recovery focuses on the IT or technology systems supporting critical business functions,[1] as opposed to business continuity, which involves keeping all essential aspects of a business functioning despite significant disruptive events
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Documentation
Documentation
Documentation
is a set of documents provided on paper, or online, or on digital or analog media, such as audio tape or CDs. Examples are user guides, white papers, on-line help, quick-reference guides. It is becoming less common to see paper (hard-copy) documentation. Documentation
Documentation
is distributed via websites, software products, and other on-line applications. Professionals educated in this field are termed documentalists
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Durability
Durability is the ability of a physical product to remain functional, without requiring excessive maintenance or repair, when faced with the challenges of normal operation over its design lifetime.[1]:5 Several units may be used to measure the durability of a product according to its field of application, such as years of life, hours of use, and operational cycles.[2] In economics, good with a long usable life are referred to as durable goods.Contents1 Requirements for product durability 2 Product life spans and sustainable consumption 3 Types of durability 4 See also 5 ReferencesRequirements for product durability[edit] Product durability is predicated by good reparability and regenerability in conjunction with maintenance.[3] Every durable product must be capable of adapting to technical, tec
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Environmental Protection
Environmental protection
Environmental protection
is a practice of protecting the natural environment on individual, organization controlled or governmental levels, for the benefit of both the environment and humans. Due to the pressures of overconsumption, population and technology, the biophysical environment is being degraded, sometimes permanently. This has been recognized, and governments have begun placing restraints on activities that cause environmental degradation. Since the 1960s, activity of environmental movements has created awareness of the various environmental problems
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Source Code Escrow
Source code
Source code
escrow is the deposit of the source code of software with a third party escrow agent. Escrow is typically requested by a party licensing software (the licensee), to ensure maintenance of the software instead of abandonment or orphaning. The software source code is released to the licensee if the licensor files for bankruptcy or otherwise fails to maintain and update the software as promised in the software license agreement.Contents1 Necessity of escrow 2 Escrow agreements 3 Third party escrow agents 4 Software
Software
open-sourcing to the public 5 See also 6 References 7 Further readingNecessity of escrow[edit] As the continued operation and maintenance of custom software is critical to many companies, they usually desire to make sure that it continues even if the licensor becomes unable to do so, such as because of bankruptcy
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Extensibility
Extensibility is a software engineering and systems design principle where the implementation takes future growth into consideration. The term extensibility can also be seen as a systemic measure of the ability to extend a system and the level of effort required to implement the extension. Extensions can be through the addition of new functionality or through modification of existing functionality
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Fault Tolerance
Fault tolerance
Fault tolerance
is the property that enables a system to continue operating properly in the event of the failure of (or one or more faults within) some of its components. If its operating quality decreases at all, the decrease is proportional to the severity of the failure, as compared to a naively designed system in which even a small failure can cause total breakdown. Fault tolerance
Fault tolerance
is particularly sought after in high-availability or life-critical systems
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Software License Agreement
In proprietary software, an end-user license agreement (EULA) or software license agreement is the contract between the licensor and purchaser, establishing the purchaser's right to use the software
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Interoperability
Interoperability
Interoperability
is a characteristic of a product or system, whose interfaces are completely understood, to work with other products or systems, at present or future, in either implementation or access, without any restrictions.[1] While the term was initially defined for information technology or systems engineering services to allow for information exchange,[2] a broader definition takes into account social, political, and organizational factors that impact system to system performance.[3] Task of building coherent services for users when the individual compone
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Network Topology
Network topology
Network topology
is the arrangement of the various elements (links, nodes, etc.) of a communication network.[1][2] Network topology
Network topology
is the topological[3] structure of a network and may be depicted physically or logically. It is an application of graph theory[4] wherein communicating devices are modeled as nodes and the connections between the devices are modeled as links or lines between the nodes. Physical topology is the placement of the various components of a network (e.g., device location and cable installation), while logical topology illustrates how data flows within a network. Distances between nodes, physical interconnections, transmission rates, or signal types may differ between two different networks, yet their topologies may be identical. A network’s physical topology is a particular concern of the physical layer of the OSI model
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Data Retention
Data retention defines the policies of persistent data and records management for meeting legal and business data archival requirements; although sometimes interchangeable, not to be confused with the Data Protection Act 1998. The different data retention policies weigh legal and privacy concerns against economics and need-to-know concerns to determine the retention time, archival rules, data formats, and the permissible means of storage, access, and encryption. In the field of telecommunications, data retention generally refers to the storage of call detail records (CDRs) of telephony and internet traffic and transaction data (IPDRs) by governments and commercial organisations. In the case of government data retention, the data that is stored is usually of telephone calls made and received, emails sent and received, and websites visited. Location data is also collected. The primary objective in government data retention is traffic analysis and mass surveillance
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Open Source
The open-source model is a decentralized software-development model that encourages open collaboration.[1][2] A main principle of open-source software development is peer production, with products such as source code, blueprints, and documentation freely available to the public. The open-source movement in software began as a response to the limitations of proprietary code. The model is used for projects such as in open-source appropriate technology,[3] and open-source drug discovery.[4][5] Open source
Open source
promotes universal access via an open-source or free license to a product's design or blueprint, and universal redistribution of that design or blueprint.[6][7] Before the phrase open source became widely adopted, developers and producers used a variety of other terms
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