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Non-celiac Gluten Sensitivity
Non-celiac gluten sensitivity
Non-celiac gluten sensitivity
(NCGS) or gluten sensitivity[11] is defined as "a clinical entity induced by the ingestion of gluten leading to intestinal and/or extraintestinal symptoms that improve once the gluten-containing foodstuff is removed from the diet, and celiac disease and wheat allergy have been excluded".[12] NCGS is included in the spectrum of gluten-related disorders.[2][3] The definition and diagnostic criteria of non-celiac gluten sensitivity were debated and established by three consensus conferences.[3][11][12][13][14] The pathogenesis of NCGS is not yet well understood
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Specialty (medicine)
A specialty, or speciality, in medicine is a branch of medical practice. After completing medical school, physicians or surgeons usually further their medical education in a specific specialty of medicine by completing a multiple year residency to become a medical specialist.[1]Contents1 History of medical specialization 2 Classification of medical specialization 3 Specialties that are common worldwide 4 List of specialties recognized in the European Union and European Economic Area 5 List of North American medical specialties and others 6 Physician
Physician
compensation 7 Specialties by country7.1 Australia and New Zealand 7.2 Canada 7.3 Germany 7.4 India 7.5 United States 7.6 Specialty and Physician
Physician
Location8 Other uses 9 Training 10 Satisfaction 11 See also 12 ReferencesHistory of medical specialization[edit] To a certain extent, medical practitioners have always been specialized
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Dermatitis
Dermatitis, also known as eczema, is a group of diseases that results in inflammation of the skin.[1] These diseases are characterized by itchiness, red skin, and a rash.[1] In cases of short duration there may be small blisters while in long-term cases the skin may become thickened.[1] The area of skin involved can vary from small to the entire body.[1][2] Dermatitis
Dermatitis
is a group of skin conditions that includes atopic dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis, and stasis dermatitis.[1][2] The exact cause of dermatitis is often unclear.[2] Cases may involve a combination
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Gastroenterology
Gastroenterology
Gastroenterology
(MeSH heading)[1] is the branch of medicine focused on the digestive system and its disorders. Diseases
Diseases
affecting the gastrointestinal tract, which include the organs from mouth into anus, along the alimentary canal, are the focus of this speciality. Physicians practicing in this field are called gastroenterologists
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Bloating
Bloat is any abnormal gas swelling, or increase in diameter of the abdominal area. [1] As a symptom, the patient feels a full and tight abdomen, which may cause abdominal pain and is sometimes accompanied by increased stomach growling, or more seriously, the total lack of it.Contents1 Symptoms 2 Causes2.1 Irritable bowel syndrome 2.2 Fiber 2.3 Belching and flatulence 2.4 Constipation 2.5 Heartburn and acid reflux 2.6 Related conditions3 Treatment3.1 Lifestyle changes4 See also 5 Notes 6 ReferencesSymptoms[edit] The most common symptom associated with bloating is a sensation that the abdomen is full or distended. Rarely, bloating may be painful or cause shortness of breath. Pains that are due to bloating will feel sharp and cause the stomach to cramp
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Aerophagia
Aerophagia (var. aerophagy) is a condition of excessive air swallowing, which goes to the stomach. Aerophagia may also refer to an unusual condition where the primary symptom is excessive flatus, belching is not present, and the actual mechanism by which air enters the gut is obscure.[1] Aerophagia in psychiatry is sometimes attributed to nervousness or anxiety.[2]Contents1 Symptoms 2 Causes 3 Diagnosis 4 References 5 See also 6 External linksSymptoms[edit]Bloating[3] Chest tightness[4] Nausea Shortness of breath[5] Belching Heartburn Abdominal pain SatietyCauses[edit] Aerophagia is associated with chewing gum, smoking, drinking carbonated drinks, eating too quickly, CPAP air pressure (if it is too high) and wearing loose dentures
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Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
Gastroesophageal reflux disease
Gastroesophageal reflux disease
(GERD), also known as acid reflux, is a long-term condition where stomach contents come back up into the esophagus resulting in either symptoms or complications.[5][6] Symptoms include the taste of acid in the back of the mouth, heartburn, bad breath, chest pain, vomiting, breathing problems, and wearing away of the teeth.[5] Complications include esophagitis, esophageal strictures, and Barrett's esophagus.[5] Risk factors include obesity, pregnancy, smoking, hiatus hernia, and taking certain medicines.[5] Medic
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Aphthous Stomatitis
Aphthous stomatitis
Aphthous stomatitis
is a common condition characterized by the repeated formation of benign and non-contagious mouth ulcers (aphthae) in otherwise healthy individuals. The informal term canker sores is also used, mainly in North America, although this may also refer to any mouth ulcer. The cause is not completely understood, but involves a T cell-mediated immune response triggered by a variety of factors. Different individuals have different triggers, which may include nutritional deficiencies, local trauma, stress, hormonal influences, allergies, or genetic predisposition. These ulcers occur periodically and heal completely between attacks. In the majority of cases, the individual ulcers last about 7–10 days, and ulceration episodes occur 3–6 times per year
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Migraine
A migraine is a primary headache disorder characterized by recurrent headaches that are moderate to severe.[1] Typically, the headaches affect one half of the head, are pulsating in nature, and last from two to 72 hours.[1] Associated symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light, sound, or smell.[2] The pain is generally made worse by physical activity.[11] Up to one-third of people have an aura: typically a short period of visual disturbance that signals that the headache will soon occur.[11] Occasionally, an aura can occur with little or no headache following it.[12] Migraines are believed to be due to a mixture of environmental and genetic factors.[3] About two-thirds of cases run in families.[5] Changing hormone levels may also play a role, as migraines affect slightly more boys than girls before puberty and two to three times more women than men.[4][13] The risk of migraines usually decreases during pregnancy.[4] The underlying mechanisms are not fully known.[14
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Hypoesthesia
Hypoesthesia (or hypesthesia) refer to a reduced sense of touch or sensation, or a partial loss of sensitivity to sensory stimuli. In everyday speech this is sometimes referred to as "numbness". Hypoesthesia is one of the negative sensory symptoms associated with cutaneous sensory disorder (CSD). In this condition, patients have abnormal disagreeable skin sensations that can be increased (stinging, itching or burning) or decreased (numbness or hypoesthesia)
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Paresthesia
Paresthesia is an abnormal sensation such as tingling, tickling, pricking, numbness or burning of a person's skin with no apparent physical cause.[1] The manifestation of a paresthesia may be transient or chronic, and may have any of dozens of possible underlying causes. The most familiar kind of paresthesia is the sensation known as "pins and needles" or of a limb "falling asleep". A less well-known and uncommon but important paresthesia is formication, the sensation of bugs crawling underneath the skin.Contents1 Causes1.1 Transient 1.2 Chronic 1.3 Acroparesthesia 1.4 Dentistry 1.5 Other2 Diagnostic approach 3 Treatment 4 Etymology 5 References 6 External linksCauses[edit] Transient[edit] Paresthesias of the hands, feet, legs and arms are common, transient symptoms. The briefest, electric shock type of paresthesia can be caused by tweaking the ulnar nerve near the elbow
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Rash
A rash is a change of the human skin which affects its color, appearance, or texture. A rash may be localized in one part of the body, or affect all the skin. Rashes may cause the skin to change color, itch, become warm, bumpy, chapped, dry, cracked or blistered, swell, and may be painful. The causes, and therefore treatments for rashes, vary widely. Diagnosis must take into account such things as the appearance of the rash, other symptoms, what the patient may have been exposed to, occupation, and occurrence in family members. A rash can last 5 to 20 days, the diagnosis may confirm any number of conditions. The presence of a rash may aid diagnosis; associated signs and symptoms are diagnostic of certain diseases. For example, the rash in measles is an erythematous, morbilliform, maculopapular rash that begins a few days after the fever starts
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Diagnosis Of Exclusion
A diagnosis of exclusion (per exclusionem) is a diagnosis of a medical condition reached by a process of elimination, which may be necessary if presence cannot be established with complete confidence from history, examination or testing. Such elimination of other reasonable possibilities is a major component in performing a differential diagnosis. The largest category of diagnosis by exclusion is seen among psychiatric disorders where the presence of physical or organic disease must be excluded as a prerequisite for making a functional diagnosis. Diagnosis
Diagnosis
by exclusion tends to occur where scientific knowledge is scarce, specifically where the means to verify a diagnosis by an objective method is absent
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Asthma
Asthma
Asthma
is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.[3] It is characterized by variable and recurring symptoms, reversible airflow obstruction, and bronchospasm.[10] Symptoms include episodes of wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath.[2] These episodes may occur a few times a day or a few times per week.[3] Depending on the person, they may become worse at night or with exercise.[3]
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Rhinitis
Rhinitis, also known as coryza,[3] is irritation and inflammation of the mucous membrane inside the nose. Common symptoms are a stuffy nose, runny nose, sneezing, and post-nasal drip.[4] The inflammation is caused by viruses, bacteria, irritants or allergens. The most common kind of rhinitis is allergic rhinitis,[5] which is usually triggered by airborne allergens such as pollen and dander.[6] Allergic rhinitis
Allergic rhinitis
may cause additional symptoms, such as sneezing and nasal itching, coughing, headache,[7] fatigue, malaise, and cognitive impairment.[8][9][10] The allergens may also affect the eyes, causing watery, reddened, or itchy eyes and puffiness around the eyes.[7] The inflammation results in the generation of large amounts of mucus, commonly producing a runny nose, as well as a stuffy nose and post-nasal drip
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Allergy
Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to something in the environment that usually causes little or no problem in most people.[10] These diseases include hay fever, food allergies, atopic dermatitis, allergic asthma, and anaphylaxis.[2] Symptoms may include red eyes, an itchy rash, sneezing, a runny nose, shortness of breath, or swelling.[1] Food intolerances and food poisoning are separate conditions.[5][4] Common allergens include pollen and certain food.[10] Metals and other substances may also cause problems.[10] Food, insect stings, and medications are common causes of severe reactions.[3] Their development is due to both genetic and environmental factors.[3] The underlying mechanism involves immunoglobulin E antibod
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