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Nocturnal
Nocturnality
Nocturnality
is an animal behavior characterized by being active during the night and sleeping during the day. The common adjective is "nocturnal", versus diurnal meaning the opposite. Nocturnal creatures generally have highly developed senses of hearing, smell, and specially adapted eyesight. Such traits can help animals such as the Helicoverpa zea
Helicoverpa zea
moths avoid predators.[1] Some animals, such as cats and ferrets, have eyes that can adapt to both low-level and bright day levels of illumination (see metaturnal). Others, such as bushbabies and (some) bats, can function only at night. Many nocturnal creatures including tarsiers and some owls have large eyes in comparison with their body size to compensate for the lower light levels at night
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Pollinate
Pollination
Pollination
is an agent’s transferring pollen from a gymnosperm’s sporophyll to an ovule’s micropyle or an agent’s transferring pollen from an angiosperm’s anther to a carpel’s stigma [2]. Pollinating agents are animals, water, and wind and even plants themselves when self-pollination occurs within a closed flower. Pollination
Pollination
often occurs within a species. When pollination occurs between species it can produce hybrid offspring in nature and in plant-breeding work. Pollination
Pollination
is a major obligate process in seed production. In angiosperms, after the pollen grain has landed on the stigma, it develops a pollen tube which grows down the style until it reaches an ovary
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Zebra
See § Classification for subspecies. Zebras
Zebras
(/ˈzɛbrə/ ZEB-rə or /ˈziːbrə/ ZEE-brə)[1] are several species of African equids (horse family) united by their distinctive black and white striped coats. Their stripes come in different patterns, unique to each individual. They are generally social animals that live in small harems to large herds. Unlike their closest relatives, horses and donkeys, zebras have never been truly domesticated. There are three species of zebras: the plains zebra, the mountain zebra and the Grévy's zebra. The plains zebra and the mountain zebra belong to the subgenus Hippotigris, but Grévy's zebra
Grévy's zebra
is the sole species of subgenus Dolichohippus. The latter resembles an ass, to which zebras are closely related, while the former two look more horse-like
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Human
Homo
Homo
sapiens idaltu White et al., 2003 Homo
Homo
sapiens sapiens Homo
Homo
sapiens population densitySynonyms Species
Species
synonymy[1]aethiopicus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 americanus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 arabicus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 aurignacensis Klaatsch & Hauser, 1910 australasicus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 cafer Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 capensis Broom, 1917 columbicus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 cro-magnonensis Gregory, 1921 drennani Kleinschmidt, 1931 eurafricanus (Sergi, 1911) grimaldiensis Gregory, 1921 grimaldii Lapouge, 1906 hottentotus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 hyperboreus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 indicus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 japeticus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 melaninus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 monstrosus Linnaeus, 1758 neptunianus Bory de St. Vincent, 1825 palestinus McCown & Keith, 1932 patagonus Bory de St
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Simian
The simians (infraorder Simiiformes) are monkeys and apes, cladistically including: the New World monkeys or platyrrhines, and the catarrhine clade consisting of the Old World monkeys and apes (including humans). The simian and tarsier lines of haplorhines diverged about 60 million years ago (during the Cenozoic era). Forty million years ago, simians from Africa colonized South America, giving rise to the New World monkeys
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Niche Differentiation
The term niche differentiation (synonymous with niche segregation, niche separation and niche partitioning), as it applies to the field of ecology, refers to the process by which competing species use the environment differently in a way that helps them to coexist. The competitive exclusion principle states that if two species with identical niches (i.e., ecological roles) compete, then one will inevitably drive the other to extinction.[1] When two species differentiate their niches, they tend to compete less strongly, and are thus more likely to coexist. Species can differentiate their niches in many ways, such as by consuming different foods, or using different parts of the environment. As an example of niche partitioning, several anole lizards in the Caribbean islands share common food needs—mainly insects. They avoid competition by occupying different physical locations
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Ecological Niche
In ecology, a niche (CanE, UK: /ˈniːʃ/ or US: /ˈnɪtʃ/)[1] is the fit of a species living under specific environmental conditions.[2][3] The ecological niche describes how an organism or population responds to the distribution of resources and competitors (for example, by growing when resources are abundant, and when predators, parasites and pathogens are scarce) and how it in turn alters those same factors (for example, limiting access to resources by other organisms, acting as a food source for predators and a consumer of prey). "The type and number of variables comprising the dimensions of an environmental niche vary from one species to another [and] the relative importance of particular environmental variables for a species may vary according to the geographic and biotic contexts".[4] A Grinnellian niche is determined by the habitat in which a species lives and its accompanying behavioral adaptations
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Hawk
Hawks are a group of medium-sized diurnal birds of prey of the family Accipitridae. Hawks are widely distributed and vary greatly in size.The subfamily Accipitrinae
Accipitrinae
includes goshawks, sparrowhawks, sharp-shinned hawks and others. This subfamily are mainly woodland birds with long tails and high visual acuity. They hunt by dashing suddenly from a concealed perch.[1] In the Americas, members of the Buteo group are also called hawks; this group are called buzzards in other parts of the world. Generally, buteos have broad wings and sturdy builds. They are relatively larger-winged, shorter-tailed and fly further distances in open areas than accipiters. Buteos descend or pounce on their prey rather than hunting in a fast horizontal pursuit.The terms accipitrine hawk and buteonine hawk are used to distinguish between the types in regions where hawk applies to both
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Predation
In an ecosystem, predation is a biological interaction where a predator (an organism that is hunting) feeds on its prey (the organism that is attacked).[1] Predators may or may not kill their prey prior to feeding on it, but the act of predation often results in the death of the prey and the eventual absorption of the prey's tissue through digestion
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Antelope
An antelope is a member of a number of even-toed ungulate species indigenous to various regions in Africa
Africa
and Eurasia. Antelopes comprise a wastebasket taxon (miscellaneous group) within the family Bovidae, encompassing those Old World
Old World
species that are not cattle, sheep, buffalo, bison, or goats; even so, antelope are generally more deer-like than other bovids
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Skunk
Skunks are North and South American mammals in the family Mephitidae. Not related to polecats which are in the weasel family, the closest Old World relative to the skunk is the stink badger[1]. The animals are known for their ability to spray a liquid with a strong unpleasant smell.[2][3][4] Different species of skunk vary in appearance from black-and-white to brown, cream or ginger colored, but all have warning coloration.Contents1 Etymology 2 Physical description 3 Diet 4 Behavior 5 Reproduction 6 Anal scent glands 7 Bites 8 As pets 9 Classification 10 See also 11 References 12 External linksEtymology[edit] 1630s, squunck, from a southern New England Algonquian language (probably Abenaki) seganku, from Proto-Algonquian */šeka:kwa/, from */šek-/ "to urinate" + */-a:kw/ "fox." "Skunk" has historic use as an insult, attested from 1841
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Wildebeest
Connochaetes gnou – black wildebeest Connochaetes taurinus – blue wildebeestRange map: Black wildebeest
Black wildebeest
shown yellow Blue wildebeest
Blue wildebeest
shown blue Overlapping range shown brownThe wildebeests, also called gnus, are a genus of antelopes, scientific name Connochaetes. They belong to the family Bovidae, which includes antelopes, cattle, goats, sheep and other even-toed horned ungulates. Connochaetes includes two species, both native to Africa: the black wildebeest, or white-tailed gnu (C. gnou); and the blue wildebeest, or brindled gnu (C. taurinus). Fossil records suggest these two species diverged about one million years ago, resulting in a northern and a southern species. The blue wildebeest remained in its original range and changed very little from the ancestral species, while the black wildebeest changed more in order to adapt to its open grassland habitat in the south
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Large Japanese Field Mouse
The large Japanese field mouse ( Apodemus
Apodemus
speciosus) is a nocturnal species of rodent in the family Muridae. It is endemic to Japan.Contents1 Distribution and habitat 2 Foraging behavior2.1 Effects of light 2.2 Tannin
Tannin
selection 2.3 Learning behavior3 References 4 External linksDistribution and habitat[edit] The species appears to be present on all Japanese islands. It inhabits forests, grasslands, and cultivated fields, including rice paddies, at any altitude.[1] Though occupying the same broad ecological niche as A. argenteus, the two species prefer different microhabitats: A. argenteus prefers dense canopy, while A
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Sea Turtle
Chelonii - Oppel, 1811 Chlonopteria - Rafinesque, 1814 Cheloniae - Schmid, 1819 Edigitata - Haworth, 1825 Oiacopodae - Wagler, 1828 Pterodactyli - Mayer, 1849Sea turtles (superfamily Chelonioidea), sometimes called marine turtles,[3] are reptiles of the order Testudines
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Arid
A region is arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or preventing the growth and development of plant and animal life. Environments subject to arid climates tend to lack vegetation and are called xeric or desertic. Most "arid" climates surround the equator; these places include most of Africa
Africa
and parts of South America, Central America
Central America
and Australia. Change over time[edit]This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (January 2008)The distribution of aridity observed at any one point in time is largely the result of the general circulation of the atmosphere. The latter does change significantly over time through climate change. For example, temperature increase (by 1.5–2.1 percent) across the Nile Basin over the next 30–40 years could change the region from semi-arid to arid, resulting in a significant reduction in agricultural land
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Biome
A biome /ˈbaɪoʊm/ is a community of plants and animals that have common characteristics for the environment they exist in. They can be found over a range of continents. Biomes are distinct biological communities that have formed in response to a shared physical climate.[1][2] "Biome" is a broader term than "habitat"; any biome can comprise a variety of habitats. While a biome can cover large areas, a microbiome is a mix of organisms that coexist in a defined space on a much smaller scale. For example, the human microbiome is the collection of bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms that are present on a human body.[3] A 'biota' is the total collection of organisms of a geographic region or a time period, from local geographic scales and instantaneous temporal scales all the way up to whole-planet and whole-timescale spatiotemporal scales
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