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NoSQL
A No SQL (originally referring to "non SQL" or "non relational")[1] database provides a mechanism for storage and retrieval of data that is modeled in means other than the tabular relations used in relational databases. Such databases have existed since the late 1960s, but did not obtain the "NoSQL" moniker until a surge of popularity in the early twenty-first century,[2] triggered by the needs of Web 2.0
Web 2.0
companies such as Facebook, Google, and Amazon.com.[3][4][5] No SQL databases are increasingly used in big data and real-time web applications.[6] No SQL systems are also sometimes called "Not only SQL" to emphasize that they may support SQL-like query languages.[7][8] Motivations for this approach include: simplicity of design, simpler "horizontal" scaling to clusters of machines (which is a problem for relational databases),[2] and finer control over availability
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COM Structured Storage
COM Structured Storage (variously also known as COM structured storage or OLE structured storage) is a technology developed by Microsoft
Microsoft
as part of its Windows operating system for storing hierarchical data within a single file. Strictly speaking, the term structured storage refers to a set of COM interfaces that a conforming implementation must provide, and not to a specific implementation, nor to a specific file format (in fact, a structured storage implementation need not store its data in a file at all). In addition to providing a hierarchical structure for data, structured storage may also provide a limited form of transactional support for data access
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Cluster Computing
A computer cluster is a set of loosely or tightly connected computers that work together so that, in many respects, they can be viewed as a single system. Unlike grid computers, computer clusters have each node set to perform the same task, controlled and scheduled by software. The components of a cluster are usually connected to each other through fast local area networks, with each node (computer used as a server) running its own instance of an operating system. In most circumstances, all of the nodes use the same hardware[1][better source needed] and the same operating system, although in some setups (e.g
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BaseX
BaseX
BaseX
is a native and light-weight XML
XML
database management system and XQuery processor, developed as a community project on GitHub.[2] It is specialized in storing, querying, and visualizing large XML
XML
documents and collections.[3] BaseX
BaseX
is platform-independent and distributed under a permissive free software license. In contrast to other document-oriented databases, XML
XML
databases provide support for standardized query languages such as XPath
XPath
and XQuery
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Vertica
Vertica
Vertica
Systems is an analytic database management software company.[1][2] Vertica
Vertica
was founded in 2005 by database researcher Michael Stonebraker, and Andrew Palmer. Andrew Palmer was the founding CEO, while Ralph Breslauer and Christopher P. Lynch served as CEO's later in the company's development. Christopher P
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Amirkabir University Of Technology
Amirkabir University of Technology
Amirkabir University of Technology
(AUT) (Persian: دانشگاه صنعتی امیرکبیر Dāneshgāh-e San'ati-ye Amirkabir), formerly called the Tehran
Tehran
Polytechnic,[2] is a public research university located in Tehran, Iran. AUT was the first established technical university in Iran, referred to as "Mother of Engineering
Engineering
Universities".[3] Acceptance to the university is competitive and entrance to undergraduate and graduate programs requires scoring among the top 1% of students in the Nationwide University Entrance Exams, known as "کنکور سراسری". The university was founded in 1928 as a standard academy,and developed to university of technology by Habib Nafisi in 1956 ,after that extended by Dr. Mohammad Ali Mojtahedi, during the reign of the Pahlavi dynasty
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Last.fm
Last .fm
.fm
is a music website, founded in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
in 2002. Using a music recommender system called "Audioscrobbler", Last.fm builds a detailed profile of each user's musical taste by recording details of the tracks the user listens to, either from Internet radio stations, or the user's computer or many portable music devices. This information is transferred ("scrobbled") to Last.fm's database either via the music player itself (including, among others Spotify, Deezer, Tidal, and MusicBee) or via a plug-in installed into the user's music player
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X/Open XA
X/Open Company, Ltd., originally the Open Group for Unix Systems,[1] was a consortium founded by several European UNIX
UNIX
systems manufacturers in 1984 to identify and promote open standards in the field of information technology. More specifically, the original aim was to define a single specification for operating systems derived from UNIX, to increase the interoperability of applications and reduce the cost of porting software. Its original members were Bull, ICL, Siemens, Olivetti, and Nixdorf—a group sometimes referred to as BISON. Philips
Philips
and Ericsson
Ericsson
joined soon afterwards, at which point the name X/Open was adopted. The group published its specifications under the name X/Open Portability Guide (or XPG)
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Write-ahead Logging
In computer science, write-ahead logging (WAL) is a family of techniques for providing atomicity and durability (two of the ACID properties) in database systems. In a system using WAL, all modifications are written to a log before they are applied. Usually both redo and undo information is stored in the log. The purpose of this can be illustrated by an example. Imagine a program that is in the middle of performing some operation when the machine it is running on loses power. Upon restart, that program might well need to know whether the operation it was performing succeeded, half-succeeded, or failed. If a write-ahead log is used, the program can check this log and compare what it was supposed to be doing when it unexpectedly lost power to what was actually done. On the basis of this comparison, the program could decide to undo what it had started, complete what it had started, or keep things as they are. WAL allows updates of a database to be done in-place
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Data Loss
Data loss
Data loss
is an error condition in information systems in which information is destroyed by failures or neglect in storage, transmission, or processing. Information systems implement backup and disaster recovery equipment and processes to prevent data loss or restore lost data. Data loss
Data loss
is distinguished from data unavailability, which may arise from a network outage. Although the two have substantially similar consequences for users, data unavailability is temporary, while data loss may be permanent
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Acid
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).[1] The first category of acids is the proton donors or Brønsted acids. In the special case of aqueous solutions, proton donors form the hydronium ion H3O+ and are known as Arrhenius acids. Brønsted and Lowry generalized the Arrhenius theory to include non-aqueous solvents. A Brønsted or Arrhenius acid usually contains a hydrogen atom bonded to a chemical structure that is still energetically favorable after loss of H+. Aqueous Arrhenius acids have characteristic properties which provide a practical description of an acid.[2] Acids form aqueous solutions with a sour taste, can turn blue litmus red, and react with bases and certain metals (like calcium) to form salts
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Consistency (database Systems)
Consistency in database systems refers to the requirement that any given database transaction must change affected data only in allowed ways. Any data written to the database must be valid according to all defined rules, including constraints, cascades, triggers, and any combination thereof. This does not guarantee correctness of the transaction in all ways the application programmer might have wanted (that is the responsibility of application-level code) but merely that any programming errors cannot result in the violation of any defined database constraints.[1]Contents1 As an ACID
ACID
guarantee 2 As a CAP trade-off 3 See also 4 ReferencesAs an ACID
ACID
guarantee[edit] Consistency is one of the four guarantees that define ACID transactions; however, significant ambiguity exists about the nature of this guarantee
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Distributed Transaction Processing
A distributed transaction is a database transaction in which two or more network hosts are involved. Usually, hosts provide transactional resources, while the transaction manager is responsible for creating and managing a global transaction that encompasses all operations against such resources. Distributed transactions, as any other transactions, must have all four ACID (atomicity, consistency, isolation, durability) properties, where atomicity guarantees all-or-nothing outcomes for the unit of work (operations bundle). Open Group, a vendor consortium, proposed the X/Open Distributed Transaction Processing (DTP) Model (X/Open XA), which became a de facto standard for behavior of transaction model components. Database are common transactional resources and, often, transactions span a couple of such databases
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Real-time Web
The real-time web is a network web using technologies and practices that enable users to receive information as soon as it is published by its authors, rather than requiring that they or their software check a source periodically for updates.Contents1 Difference from real-time computing 2 (Old) True-realtime web (an "alternate" model) 3 History 4 Real-time search 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksDifference from real-time computing[edit] The real-time web is different from real-time computing in that there is no knowing when, or if, a response will be received. The information types transmitted this way are often short messages, status updates, news alerts, or links to longer documents
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Web 2.0
Web 2.0
Web 2.0
refers to World Wide Web
World Wide Web
websites that emphasize user-generated content, usability (ease of use, even by non-experts), and interoperability (this means that a website can work well with other products, systems, and devices) for end users
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Amazon.com
Amazon.com, Inc., doing business as Amazon (/ˈæməˌzɒn/), is an American electronic commerce and cloud computing company based in Seattle, Washington
Seattle, Washington
that was founded by Jeff Bezos
Jeff Bezos
on July 5, 1994. The tech giant is the largest Internet retailer
Internet retailer
in the world as measured by revenue and market capitalization, and second largest after Alibaba Group
Alibaba Group
in terms of total sales.[3] The amazon .com
.com
website started as an online bookstore and later diversified to sell video downloads/streaming, MP3
MP3
downloads/streaming, audiobook downloads/streaming, software, video games, electronics, apparel, furniture, food, toys, and jewelry
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