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Niue
NIUE (/ˈnjuːeɪ/ NEW-ay ; Niuean : Niuē) is an island country in the South Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
, 2,400 kilometres (1,500 mi) northeast of New Zealand , and east of Tonga
Tonga
, south of Samoa
Samoa
and west of the Cook Islands . Its land area is 260 square kilometres (100 sq mi) and its population, predominantly Polynesian , was around 1,612 as of November 2016. The island is commonly referred to as "The Rock", which comes from the traditional name "Rock of Polynesia
Polynesia
". Niue, whose capital is the village of Alofi
Alofi
, is a self-governing state in free association with New Zealand
New Zealand
; and New Zealand
New Zealand
conducts most diplomatic relations on its behalf
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Constitutional Monarchy
A CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises their authorities in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution . Constitutional monarchy
Constitutional monarchy
differs from absolute monarchy (in which a monarch holds absolute power), in that constitutional monarchs are bound to exercise their powers and authorities within the limits prescribed within an established legal framework. Constitutional monarchies range from countries such as Morocco
Morocco
, where the constitution grants substantial discretionary powers to the sovereign, to countries such as Sweden
Sweden
or Denmark
Denmark
where the monarch retains very few formal authorities. A constitutional monarchy may refer to a system in which the monarch acts as a non-party political head of state under the constitution , whether written or unwritten
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Parliamentary System
A PARLIAMENTARY SYSTEM is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament , and is also held accountable to that parliament. In a parliamentary system, the head of state is usually a different person from the head of government . This is in contrast to a presidential system , where the head of state often is also the head of government and, most importantly, the executive branch does not derive its democratic legitimacy from the legislature
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Gross Domestic Product
GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time . Nominal GDP estimates are commonly used to determine the economic performance of a whole country or region, and to make international comparisons. Nominal GDP per capita
GDP per capita
does not, however, reflect differences in the cost of living and the inflation rates of the countries; therefore using a basis of GDP per capita
GDP per capita
at purchasing power parity (PPP) is arguably more useful when comparing differences in living standards between different nations
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Right- And Left-hand Traffic
The terms RIGHT-HAND TRAFFIC (RHT) AND LEFT-HAND TRAFFIC (LHT) refer to regulations requiring all bidirectional traffic , unless otherwise directed, to keep to the right or to the left side of the road, respectively. This is so fundamental to traffic flow that it is sometimes referred to as the RULE OF THE ROAD. 163 countries and territories use RHT, with the remaining 76 countries and territories using LHT . Countries that use LHT account for about a sixth of the world's area and a quarter of its roads. In the early 1900s some countries including Canada
Canada
, Spain
Spain
, and Brazil had different rules in different parts of the country. During the 1900s many countries standardised within their jurisdictions, and changed from LHT to RHT, mostly to conform with regional custom. In 1919, 104 of the world's territories were LHT and an equal number were RHT. From 1919 to 1986, 34 of the LHT territories switched to RHT
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Elizabeth II
ELIZABETH II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) has been Queen of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, Canada
Canada
, Australia
Australia
, and New Zealand since 6 February 1952. Additionally, she is Head of the Commonwealth and queen of 12 countries that have become independent since her accession: Jamaica
Jamaica
, Barbados
Barbados
, the Bahamas , Grenada
Grenada
, Papua New Guinea , Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
, Tuvalu
Tuvalu
, Saint Lucia
Saint Lucia
, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines , Belize
Belize
, Antigua and Barbuda , and Saint Kitts and Nevis
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Purchasing Power Parity
PURCHASING POWER PARITY (PPP) is an economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two currencies is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power . Theories that invoke purchasing power parity assume that in some circumstances (for example, as a long-run tendency) it would cost exactly the same number of, for example, US dollars to buy euros and then to use the difference in value to buy a market basket of goods as it would cost to directly purchase the market basket of goods with dollars. A fall in either currency's purchasing power would lead to a proportional decrease in that currency's valuation on the foreign exchange market . The concept of purchasing power parity allows one to estimate what the exchange rate between two currencies would have to be in order for the exchange to be at par with the purchasing power of the two countries' currencies
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Dame Patsy Reddy
DAME PATRICIA LEE "PATSY" REDDY, GNZM , QSO , DStJ (born 17 May 1954) is a New Zealand lawyer and non-executive director who has served as the 21st Governor-General of New Zealand
Governor-General of New Zealand
since 28 September 2016. She is the third woman to be appointed to the position, after Catherine Tizard and Silvia Cartwright
Silvia Cartwright
. CONTENTS * 1 Early life and education * 2 Career * 3 Governor-General * 4 Personal life * 5 Honours and awards * 6 References EARLY LIFE AND EDUCATIONBorn in Matamata , New Zealand, on 17 May 1954, Reddy is the daughter of Neil William and Catherine Marjorie "Kay" Reddy, both of whom were schoolteachers. Three of her forebears left Ireland and went to Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. A distant cousin, singer Helen Reddy
Helen Reddy
, is descended from the Australian forebear
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Coordinated Universal Time
COORDINATED UNIVERSAL TIME abbreviated to UTC, is the primary time standard by which the world regulates clocks and time. It is within about 1 second of mean solar time at 0° longitude ; it does not observe daylight saving time . For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with Greenwich Mean Time
Greenwich Mean Time
(GMT), but GMT
GMT
is no longer precisely defined by the scientific community. The first Coordinated Universal Time was informally adopted on 1 January 1960, but the official abbreviation of UTC and the official English name of Coordinated Universal Time (along with the French equivalent), was not adopted until 1967. The system was adjusted several times, including a brief period where time coordination radio signals broadcast both UTC and "Stepped Atomic Time
Time
(SAT)" until a new UTC was adopted in 1970 and implemented in 1972
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ISO 3166
ISO 3166 is a standard published by the International Organization for Standardization
Standardization
(ISO) that defines codes for the names of countries , dependent territories , special areas of geographical interest, and their principal subdivisions (e.g., provinces or states ). The official name of the standard is Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions. CONTENTS * 1 Parts * 2 Editions * 3 ISO 3166 Maintenance Agency * 3.1 Members * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links PARTSIt consists of three parts: * ISO 3166-1 , Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions – Part 1: Country
Country
codes, defines codes for the names of countries, dependent territories, and special areas of geographical interest
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Unitary State
A UNITARY STATE is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate. The majority of states in the world have a unitary system of government. Of the 193 UN member states , 165 are governed as unitary states. In a unitary state, sub-national units are created and abolished (an example being the 22 mainland regions of France
France
being merged into 13), and their powers may be broadened and narrowed, by the central government. Although political power may be delegated through devolution to local governments by statute , the central government remains supreme; it may abrogate the acts of devolved governments or curtail their powers
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Demonym
A DEMONYM (/ˈdɛmənɪm/ ; δῆμος dẽmos "people, tribe", ὄόνομα ónoma "name") is a word that identifies residents or natives of a particular place, which is derived from the name of that particular place. It is a neologism (i.e., a recently minted term); previously GENTILIC was recorded in English dictionaries, e.g., the Oxford
Oxford
English Dictionary and Chambers Twentieth Century Dictionary. Examples of demonyms include a Swahili for a person of the Swahili coast , the colloquial Kiwi for a person from New Zealand
New Zealand
, and a Cochabambino for a person from the city of Cochabamba
Cochabamba
. Demonyms do not always clearly distinguish place of origin or ethnicity from place of residence or citizenship, and many demonyms overlap with the ethnonym for the ethnically dominant group of a region
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Head Of State
A HEAD OF STATE (or CHIEF OF STATE) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state . Depending on the country's form of government and separation of powers , the head of state may be a ceremonial figurehead or concurrently the head of government . In countries with parliamentary systems , the head of state is typically a ceremonial figurehead that does not actually guide day-to-day government activities or is not empowered to exercise any kind of secular political authority (e.g., Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
of United Kingdom
United Kingdom
). In countries where the head of state is also the head of government, the head of state serves as both a public figurehead and the actual highest-ranking political leader who oversees the executive branch (e.g., the President
President
of the United States )
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Island Country
An ISLAND COUNTRY is a country whose primary territory consists of one or more islands or parts of islands. As of 2011, 46 (approximately 24% ) of the 193 UN member states are island countries. CONTENTS * 1 Politics * 2 War * 3 Natural resources * 4 Geography * 5 Economics * 6 Composition * 7 See also * 8 References POLITICSThe percentage of island countries that are democratic is higher than that of continental countries. Historically they have been more prone to political stability than their continental counterparts. WAR Island
Island
countries have often been the basis of maritime conquest and historical rivalry between other countries. Island
Island
countries are more susceptible to attack by large, continental countries due to their size and dependence on sea and air lines of communication
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Country Code Top-level Domain
A COUNTRY CODE TOP-LEVEL DOMAIN (CCTLD) is an Internet
Internet
top-level domain generally used or reserved for a country , sovereign state, or dependent territory identified with a country code . All ASCII
ASCII
ccTLD identifiers are two letters long, and all two-letter top-level domains are ccTLDs. In 2010, the Internet
Internet
Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) began implementing internationalized country code top-level domains , consisting of language-native characters when displayed in an end-user application. Creation and delegation of ccTLDs is described in RFC 1591 , corresponding to ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 country codes
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ISO 3166-2
ISO 3166-2 is part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization
Standardization
(ISO), and defines codes for identifying the principal subdivisions (e.g., provinces or states ) of all countries coded in ISO 3166-1 . The official name of the standard is Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions – Part 2: Country subdivision code. It was first published in 1998. The purpose of ISO 3166-2 is to establish an international standard of short and unique alphanumeric codes to represent the relevant administrative divisions and dependent territories of all countries in a more convenient and less ambiguous form than their full names
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