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Niue
Niue
Niue
(/ˈnjuːeɪ/ NEW-ay; Niuean: Niuē) is an island country in the South Pacific Ocean, 2,400 kilometres (1,500 mi) northeast of New Zealand, east of Tonga, south of Samoa, and west of the Cook Islands. Niue's land area is about 261 square kilometres (101 sq mi)[7] and its population, predominantly Polynesian, was about 1,600 in 2016.[4] The island is commonly referred to as "The Rock", which comes from the traditional name "Rock of Polynesia".[8] Niue
Niue
is one of the world's largest coral islands. The terrain consists of steep limestone cliffs along the coast with a central plateau rising to about 60 metres above sea level. A coral reef surrounds the island, with the only major break in the reef being in the central western coast, close to Alofi
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Gross Domestic Product
Gross domestic product
Gross domestic product
(GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time. Nominal GDP estimates are commonly used to determine the economic performance of a whole country or region, and to make international comparisons
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Constitutional Monarchy
A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercise authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.[1] Constitutional monarchy
Constitutional monarchy
differs from absolute monarchy (in which a monarch holds absolute power), in that constitutional monarchs are bound to exercise their powers and authorities within the limits prescribed within an established legal framework
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Purchasing Power Parity
Purchasing power parity (PPP) is an economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two countries is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power. Theories that invoke purchasing power parity assume that in some circumstances (for example, as a long-run tendency) it would cost exactly the same number of, for example, US dollars to buy euros and then to use the difference in value to buy a market basket of goods as it would cost to directly purchase the market basket of goods with dollars. A fall in either currency's purchasing power would lead to a proportional decrease in that currency's valuation on the foreign exchange market. The concept of purchasing power parity allows one to estimate what the exchange rate between two currencies would have to be in order for the exchange to be at par with the purchasing power of the two countries' currencies
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ISO 3166
ISO 3166 is a standard published by the International Organization for Standardization
Standardization
(ISO) that defines codes for the names of countries, dependent territories, special areas of geographical interest, and their principal subdivisions (e.g., provinces or states). The official name of the standard is Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions.Contents1 Parts 2 Editions 3 ISO 3166 Maintenance Agency3.1 Members4 See also 5 References 6 External linksParts[edit] It consists of three parts:[1]ISO 3166-1, Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions – Part 1: Country
Country
codes, defines codes for the names of countries, dependent territories, and special areas of geographical interest
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Country Code Top-level Domain
A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is an Internet
Internet
top-level domain generally used or reserved for a country, sovereign state, or dependent territory identified with a country code. All ASCII
ASCII
ccTLD identifiers are two letters long, and all two-letter top-level domains are ccTLDs. In 2010, the Internet
Internet
Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) began implementing internationalized country code top-level domains, consisting of language-native characters when displayed in an end-user application
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Fixed Exchange-rate System
A fixed exchange rate, sometimes called a pegged exchange rate, is a type of exchange rate regime where a currency's value is fixed against either the value of another single currency, to a basket of other currencies, or to another measure of value, such as gold. There are benefits and risks to using a fixed exchange rate. A fixed exchange rate is typically used in order to stabilize the value of a currency by directly fixing its value in a predetermined ratio to a different, more stable or more internationally prevalent currency (or currencies), to which the value is pegged. In doing so, the exchange rate between the currency and its peg does not change based on market conditions, the way floating currencies do
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Coin Collecting
Coin
Coin
collecting is the collecting of coins or other forms of minted legal tender. Coins of interest to collectors often include those that circulated for only a brief time, coins with mint errors and especially beautiful or historically significant pieces. Coin
Coin
collecting can be differentiated from numismatics, in that the latter is the systematic study of currency. Though closely related, the two disciplines are not necessarily the same. A numismatist may or may not be a coin collector, and vice versa. A coin's grade is a main determinant of its value. For a tiered fee, a third party certification service like PCGS or NGC will grade, authenticate, attribute, and encapsulate most U.S
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Dame Patsy Reddy
Dame Patricia Lee Reddy, GNZM, QSO, DStJ (born 17 May 1954), is a New Zealand lawyer and businesswoman serving as the 21st and current Governor-General of New Zealand, in office since 28 September 2016. She is the third woman to be appointed to the position, after Dame Catherine Tizard
Catherine Tizard
and Dame Silvia Cartwright.Contents1 Early life and education 2 Career 3 Governor-General 4 Personal life 5 Honours and awards 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksEarly life and education[edit] Born in Matamata, New Zealand, on 17 May 1954,[1] Reddy is the daughter of Neil William and Catherine Marjorie "Kay" Reddy, both of whom were schoolteachers.[2] Three of her forebears left Ireland and went to Canada, Australia, and New Zealand
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Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
(Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926)[a] is Queen of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and the other Commonwealth realms. Elizabeth was born in London as the first child of the Duke and Duchess of York, later King George VI
George VI
and Queen Elizabeth, and she was educated privately at home. Her father acceded to the throne on the abdication of his brother King Edward VIII
King Edward VIII
in 1936, from which time she was the heir presumptive. She began to undertake public duties during the Second World War, serving in the Auxiliary Territorial Service
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Island Country
An island country is a country whose primary territory consists of one or more islands or parts of islands. As of 2011, 46 (approximately 24%[1]) of the 193 UN member states are island countries.Contents1 Politics 2 War 3 Natural resources 4 Geography 5 Economics 6 Composition 7 See also 8 ReferencesPolitics[edit] The percentage of island countries that are democratic is higher than that of continental countries
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Non-circulating Legal Tender
Non-circulating legal tender (NCLT) refers to coins that are theoretically legal tender and could circulate but do not because their issue price, and/or their melt value at the time of issue is significantly above the arbitrary legal tender value placed thereon. They are sold to collectors and investors with no intention that they be used as money
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Parliamentary System
A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament. In a parliamentary system, the head of state is usually a different person from the head of government
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Demonym
A demonym (/ˈdɛmənɪm/; δῆμος dẽmos "people, tribe", ὄόνομα ónoma "name") is a word that identifies residents or natives of a particular place, which is derived from the name of that particular place.[1] It is a neologism (i.e., a recently minted term); previously gentilic was recorded in English dictionaries, e.g., the Oxford
Oxford
English Dictionary and Chambers Twentieth Century Dictionary.[2][3][4] Examples of demonyms include Swahili for a person of the Swahili coast and Cochabambino for a person from the city of Cochabamba. Demonyms do not always clearly distinguish place of origin or ethnicity from place of residence or citizenship, and many demonyms overlap with the ethnonym for the ethnically dominant group of a region
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Unitary State
A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate. The majority of states in the world have a unitary system of government. Of the 193 UN member states, 165 are governed as unitary states. In a unitary state, sub-national units are created and abolished (an example being the 22 mainland regions of France
France
being merged into 13), and their powers may be broadened and narrowed, by the central government. Although political power may be delegated through devolution to local governments by statute, the central government remains supreme; it may abrogate the acts of devolved governments or curtail their powers. The United Kingdom
The United Kingdom
of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
is an example of a unitary state
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Coordinated Universal Time
Coordinated Universal Time
Universal Time
(abbreviated to UTC) is the primary time standard by which the world regulates clocks and time. It is within about 1 second of mean solar time at 0° longitude;[1] it does not observe daylight saving time
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