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Nissen Fundoplication
A Nissen fundoplication, or laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication
Nissen fundoplication
when performed via laparoscopic surgery, is a surgical procedure to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and hiatal hernia. In GERD, it is usually performed when medical therapy has failed; but, with a Type II (paraesophageal) hiatus hernia, it is the first-line procedure. The Nissen fundoplication
Nissen fundoplication
is total (360°), but partial fundoplications known as Thal (270° anterior), Belsey (270° anterior transthoracic), Dor (anterior 180–200°), Lind (300° posterior), and Toupet fundoplications (posterior 270°) are alternative procedures with somewhat different indications and outcomes.[1]Contents1 History 2 Technique 3 Mechanism of relief 4 Complications 5 ReferencesHistory[edit] Dr
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Aerophagia
Aerophagia (var. aerophagy) is a condition of excessive air swallowing, which goes to the stomach. Aerophagia may also refer to an unusual condition where the primary symptom is excessive flatus, belching is not present, and the actual mechanism by which air enters the gut is obscure.[1] Aerophagia in psychiatry is sometimes attributed to nervousness or anxiety.[2]Contents1 Symptoms 2 Causes 3 Diagnosis 4 References 5 See also 6 External linksSymptoms[edit]Bloating[3] Chest tightness[4] Nausea Shortness of breath[5] Belching Heartburn Abdominal pain SatietyCauses[edit] Aerophagia is associated with chewing gum, smoking, drinking carbonated drinks, eating too quickly, CPAP air pressure (if it is too high) and wearing loose dentures
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Pylorus
The pylorus (/paɪˈlɔːrəs/ or /pɪˈloʊrəs/), or pyloric part, connects the stomach to the duodenum. The pylorus is considered as having two parts, the pyloric antrum (opening to the body of the stomach) and the pyloric canal (opening to the duodenum). The pyloric canal ends as the pyloric orifice, which marks the junction between the stomach and the duodenum. The orifice is surrounded by a sphincter, a band of muscle, called the pyloric sphincter. The word pylorus comes from Greek πυλωρός, via Latin. The word pylorus in Greek means "gatekeeper", related to "gate" (Greek: pyle) and is thus linguistically related to the word "pylon".[1]Contents1 Structure1.1 Antrum 1.2 Canal 1.3 Sphincter 1.4 Histology2 Function 3 Clinical significance3.1 Stenosis 3.2 Other4 Additional images 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksStructure[edit]Diagram from cancer.gov:* 1. Body of stomach * 2. Fundus * 3. Anterior wall * 4. Greater curvature * 5. Lesser curvature * 6
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Human Gastrointestinal Tract
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces. The mouth, esophagus, stomach, and intestines are part of the gastrointestinal tract. Gastrointestinal is an adjective meaning of or pertaining to the stomach and intestines. A tract is a collection of related anatomic structures or a series of connected body organs. All bilaterians have a gastrointestinal tract, also called a gut or an alimentary canal. This is a tube that transfers food to the organs of digestion.[1] In large bilaterians, the gastrointestinal tract generally also has an exit, the anus, by which the animal disposes of feces (solid wastes)
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PubMed Central
PubMed
PubMed
Central (PMC) is a free digital repository that archives publicly accessible full-text scholarly articles that have been published within the biomedical and life sciences journal literature. As one of the major research databases within the suite of resources that have been developed by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), PubMed
PubMed
Central is much more than just a document repository
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PubMed Identifier
PubMed
PubMed
is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine
United States National Library of Medicine
(NLM) at the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
maintains the database as part of the Entrez
Entrez
system of information retrieval. From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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Food Poisoning
Foodborne illness
Foodborne illness
(also foodborne disease and colloquially referred to as food poisoning)[1] is any illness resulting from the food spoilage of contaminated food, pathogenic bacteria, viruses, or parasites that contaminate food,[2] as well as toxins such as poisonous mushrooms and various species of beans that have not been boiled for at least 10 minutes. Symptoms vary depending on the cause, and are described below in this article. A few broad generalizations can be made, e.g.: The incubation period ranges from hours to days, depending on the cause and on how much was consumed. The incubation period tends to cause sufferers to not associate the symptoms with the item consumed, and so to cause sufferers to attribute the symptoms to gastroenteritis for example. Symptoms often include vomiting, fever, and aches, and may include diarrhea
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Alcohol Poisoning
Alcohol intoxication, also known as drunkenness among other names, is a physiological condition that may result in psychological alterations of consciousness
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Esophageal Dilatation
Esophageal dilatation is a therapeutic endoscopic procedure that enlarges the lumen of the esophagus.[1]Contents1 Indications 2 Types of dilators 3 Complications 4 ReferencesIndications[edit] It can be used to treat a number of medical conditions that result in narrowing of the esophageal lumen, or decrease motility in the distal esophagus. These include the following:Peptic stricture Schatzki rings Achalasia Scleroderma esophagus Rarely esophageal cancerTypes of dilators[edit] There are three major classes of dilators:Mercury-weighted bougies are blindly inserted bougies placed into the esophagus by the treating physician. They are passed in sequentially increasing sizes to dilate the obstructed area. They must be used with precaution in patients with narrow strictures, as they may curl proximal to the obstruction. Bougie over guidewire dilators are used at the time of gastroscopy or fluoroscopy
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Belching
Burping (also known as belching, ructus, eruptus or eructation) is the release of gas from the digestive tract (mainly esophagus and stomach) through the mouth.Contents1 Physiology 2 Infants 3 Cultural acceptance 4 "Burped" speech 5 In other animals 6 ReferencesPhysiology[edit] Burping is generally caused by swallowing air when eating or drinking and subsequently expelling it, so in this case the expelled gas is mainly a mixture of nitrogen and oxygen. Burps can also be caused by drinking carbonated beverages, such as beer and soft drinks in which case the expelled gas is primarily carbon dioxide from the drink itself. Common diabetes drugs metformin[1] and Byetta[2] can cause burping, especially at higher doses. This often resolves in a few weeks
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Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Irritable bowel syndrome
Irritable bowel syndrome
(IBS) is a group of symptoms—including abdominal pain and changes in the pattern of bowel movements without any evidence of underlying damage.[1] These symptoms occur over a long time, often years.[2] It has been classified into four main types depending on whether diarrhea is common, constipation is common, both are common, or neither occurs very often (IBS-D, IBS-C, IBS-M, or IBS-U respectively).[1] IBS negatively affects quality of life and may result in missed school or work.[7] Disorders such as anxiety, major de
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Marlex
Marlex is a trademarked name for crystalline polypropylene and high-density polyethylene (HDPE). These plastics were invented by J. Paul Hogan and Robert Banks, two research chemists at the Phillips Petroleum company. The material was originally interesting in the 1950s because its high melting point and tensile strength were more desirable than that of the more common form of polyethylene. For example, the medical community was eager to make use of its high melting point; objects made of Marlex could be cleaned in high temperature autoclaves without affecting their form.[1] Marlex was used by Wham-O
Wham-O
for their Hula Hoops in the 1950s, which helped create a market for this plastic. It is now used surgically as a reinforcing mesh in inguinal hernia repair. Notes[edit]This article needs additional citations for verification
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Dumping Syndrome
Dumping syndrome occurs when food, especially sugar, moves too fast from the stomach to the duodenum—the first part of the small intestine—in the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract. This condition is also called rapid gastric emptying.[1] It is mostly associated with conditions following gastric or esophageal surgery, though it can also arise secondary to diabetes or to the use of certain medications; it is caused by an absent or insufficiently functioning pyloric sphincter, the valve between the stomach and the duodenum.[2] Dumping syndrome has two forms, based on when symptoms occur. Early dumping syndrome occurs 10 to 30 minutes after a meal. It results from rapid movement of fluid into the intestine following a sudden addition of a large amount of food from the stomach.[1] The small intestine expands rapidly due to the presence of hypertonic/hyperosmolar contents from the stomach, especially sweet foods
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Proton-pump Inhibitor
Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) are a group of drugs whose main action is a pronounced and long-lasting reduction of stomach acid production. Within the class of medications, there is no clear evidence that one agent works better than another.[1][2] They are the most potent inhibitors of acid secretion available.[3] This group of drugs followed and largely superseded another group of medications with similar effects, but a different mode of action, called H2-receptor antagonists. PPIs are among the most widely sold drugs in the world, and the first one, omeprazole, is on the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines.[4] The cost between different agents varies significantly.[1]Contents1 Medical uses 2 Adverse effects2.1 Nutritional 2.2 Gastrointestinal 2.3 Cardiovascular 2.4 Other3 Mechanism of action 4 Pharmacokinetics 5 Examples 6 History 7 Society and culture7.1 Cost 7.2 Regulatory approval8 References 9 External linksMedical uses[edit] The
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Gastric Acid
Gastric acid, gastric juice or stomach acid, is a digestive fluid formed in the stomach and is composed of hydrochloric acid (HCl), potassium chloride (KCl) and sodium chloride (NaCl). The acid plays a key role in digestion of proteins, by activating digestive enzymes, and making ingested proteins unravel so that digestive enzymes break down the long chains of amino acids. Gastric acid
Gastric acid
is produced by cells in the lining of the stomach, which are coupled in feedback systems to increase acid production when needed. Other cells in the stomach produce bicarbonate, a base, to buffer the fluid, ensuring that it does not become too acidic. These cells also produce mucus, which forms a viscous physical barrier to prevent gastric acid from damaging the stomach
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