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Nikolaus Pevsner
SIR NIKOLAUS BERNHARD LEON PEVSNER CBE
CBE
FBA (30 January 1902 – 18 August 1983) was a German, later British scholar of history of art and, especially, of history of architecture . Pevsner is best known for his 46-volume series of county-by-county guides, The Buildings of England (1951–74), often simply referred to by his surname. CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Second World War * 3 Postwar * 4 Death * 5 Notable ideas and theories * 6 Archive * 7 Publications * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 9.1 Papers * 10 External links LIFEThe son of a Russian-Jewish fur haulier, Nikolaus Pevsner
Nikolaus Pevsner
was born in Leipzig
Leipzig
, Saxony
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Commander Of The Order Of The British Empire
The MOST EXCELLENT ORDER OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE is a British order of chivalry , rewarding contributions to the arts and sciences, work with charitable and welfare organisations, and public service outside the Civil service
Civil service
. It was established on 4 June 1917 by King George V
George V
, and comprises five classes across both civil and military divisions, the most senior two of which make the recipient either a knight if male or dame if female. There is also the related British Empire Medal , whose recipients are affiliated with, but not members of, the order. Recommendations for appointments to the Order of the British Empire were at first made on the nomination of the United Kingdom, the self-governing Dominions
Dominions
of the Empire (later Commonwealth) and the Viceroy of India
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Weimar
WEIMAR (German pronunciation: ; Latin : Vimaria or Vinaria) is a city in the federal state of Thuringia
Thuringia
, Germany
Germany
. It is located between Erfurt
Erfurt
in the west and Jena
Jena
in the east, approximately 80 kilometres (50 miles) southwest of Leipzig
Leipzig
, 170 kilometres (106 miles) north of Nuremberg
Nuremberg
and 170 kilometres (106 miles) west of Dresden
Dresden
. Together with the neighbour-cities Erfurt
Erfurt
and Jena
Jena
it forms the central metropolitan area of Thuringia
Thuringia
with approximately 500,000 inhabitants, whereas the city itself counts a population of 65,000. Weimar
Weimar
is well known because of its large cultural heritage and its importance in German history
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Faber & Faber
FABER AND FABER LIMITED, often abbreviated to FABER, is an independent publishing house in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
. Faber has published some of the most well-known literature in the English language, including William Golding
William Golding
's Lord of the Flies
Lord of the Flies
. Poet T. S. Eliot was once a Faber editor. In 2006 the company was named the KPMG
KPMG
Publisher of the Year. FABER AND FABER INC., formerly the American branch of the London company, was sold in 1998 to the Holtzbrinck company Farrar, Straus and Giroux , which now operates as part of the Macmillan Group
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Walter Gropius
WALTER ADOLPH GEORG GROPIUS (18 May 1883 – 5 July 1969) was a German architect and founder of the Bauhaus
Bauhaus
School, who, along with Ludwig Mies van der Rohe , Le Corbusier and Frank Lloyd Wright , is widely regarded as one of the pioneering masters of modernist architecture . CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Early career (1908–14) * 3 Bauhaus
Bauhaus
period (1919–28) * 4 Post Bauhaus
Bauhaus
(1933–45) * 5 Death * 6 Legacy * 7 Quotes * 8 Selected buildings * 9 References * 10 Bibliography * 11 Further reading * 12 External links EARLY LIFEBorn in Berlin
Berlin
, Walter Gropius
Walter Gropius
was the third child of Walter Adolph Gropius and Manon Auguste Pauline Scharnweber (1855–1933)
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Sydney Gordon Russell
SIR (SYDNEY) GORDON RUSSELL, CBE , MC , RDI , FSIA (20 May 1892 – 7 October 1980) was an English designer, craftsman and educationist. CONTENTS * 1 Career * 2 Portrait bust of Sir Gordon Russell * 3 References and sources * 4 External links CAREERHe came under the influence of the Arts and Crafts movement from 1904 after his father had moved to Broadway in the Cotswolds to be hotelier at the Lygon Arms, through the Guild of Handicraft , the community of metalworkers, enamellers, wood carvers, furniture makers, and printers brought in 1902 by C. R. Ashbee from east London to Chipping Campden . Following service as an officer in World War I , for which he was awarded the Military Cross in 1918, he became a furniture maker and designer. In 1925 Russell won a Gold Medal at the Paris Exhibition with a cabinet, with internal drawers lined with boxwood , ebony and laburnum , and valued in 2013 at £50,000 - £60,000
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Nazi Germany
Coordinates : 52°31′N 13°24′E / 52.517°N 13.400°E / 52.517; 13.400 "Drittes Reich" redirects here. For the 1923 book, see Das Dritte Reich
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Law For The Restoration Of The Professional Civil Service
The LAW FOR THE RESTORATION OF THE PROFESSIONAL CIVIL SERVICE (German : Gesetz zur Wiederherstellung des Berufsbeamtentums, shortened to Berufsbeamtengesetz), also known as CIVIL SERVICE LAW, CIVIL SERVICE RESTORATION ACT, and LAW TO RE-ESTABLISH THE CIVIL SERVICE, was a law passed by the National Socialist regime on 7 April 1933, two months after Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
attained power. Article 1 of the Law
Law
claimed that in order to re-establish a "national" and "professional" civil service, members of certain groups of tenured civil servants were to be dismissed. Civil servants who were not of Aryan descent were to retire. Non Aryans were defined as someone descended from non Aryans, especially those descended from Jewish parents, or grandparents. Members of the Communist Party, or any related or associated organisation were to be dismissed
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Goebbels
PAUL JOSEPH GOEBBELS (German: ( listen ); 29 October 1897 – 1 May 1945) was a German politician and Reich Minister of Propaganda of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. He was one of Adolf Hitler 's close associates and most devoted followers, and was known for his skills in public speaking and his deep, virulent antisemitism , which was evident in his publicly voiced views. He advocated progressively harsher discrimination, including the extermination of the Jews in the Holocaust . Goebbels, who aspired to be an author, obtained a Doctor of Philosophy degree from the University of Heidelberg in 1921. He joined the Nazi Party in 1924, and worked with Gregor Strasser in their northern branch. He was appointed as Gauleiter (district leader) for Berlin in 1926, where he began to take an interest in the use of propaganda to promote the party and its programme
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Nazis
NATIONAL SOCIALISM (German : Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as NAZISM (/ˈnɑːtsɪzəm, ˈnæ-/ ), is the ideology and set of practices associated with the 20th-century German Nazi Party
Nazi Party
, Nazi Germany , and other far-right groups. Sometimes characterised as a form of fascism that incorporates scientific racism and antisemitism , Nazism's development was influenced by German nationalism (especially Pan-Germanism ), the Völkisch movement and the anti-communist Freikorps paramilitary groups that emerged during the Weimar Republic after Germany's defeat in First World War . Nazism
Nazism
subscribed to theories of racial hierarchy and Social Darwinism , identifying the Germans as a part of what the Nazis regarded as an Aryan or Nordic master race
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Allen Lane
SIR ALLEN LANE (born ALLEN LANE WILLIAMS; 21 September 1902 – 7 July 1970) was a British publisher who together with V. K. Krishna Menon and his brothers Richard and John Lane founded Penguin Books
Penguin Books
, bringing high-quality paperback fiction and non-fiction to the mass market. CONTENTS * 1 Early life and family * 2 Career as a publisher * 3 References * 4 Further reading * 5 External links EARLY LIFE AND FAMILY Allen Lane
Allen Lane
Williams was born in Bristol
Bristol
to Camilla (née Lane) and Samuel Williams, and studied at Bristol
Bristol
Grammar School . In 1919 he joined the publishing company Bodley Head as an apprentice to his uncle and founder of the company John Lane . In the process, he and the rest of his family changed their surname to Lane to retain the childless John Lane's company as a family firm
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Yale University Press
YALE UNIVERSITY PRESS is a university press associated with Yale University . It was founded in 1908 by George Parmly Day, and became an official department of Yale University
Yale University
in 1961, but it remains financially and operationally autonomous. As of 2009 , Yale University
Yale University
Press published approximately 300 new hardcover and 150 new paperback books annually and has more than 6,000 books in print. Its books have won five National Book Awards , two National Book Critics Circle Awards and eight Pulitzer Prizes
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BBC Third Programme
The BBC
BBC
THIRD PROGRAMME was a national radio service produced and broadcast by the BBC
BBC
between 1946 and 1970. It first went on the air on 29 September 1946 and quickly became one of the leading cultural and intellectual forces in Britain, playing a crucial role in disseminating the arts. It was the BBC's third national radio network, the other two being the Home Service (mainly speech-based) and the Light Programme , principally devoted to light entertainment and music. The Third Programme was replaced by BBC
BBC
Radio 3 on 4 April 1970
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Die Zeitung
DIE ZEITUNG (English: The Newspaper) was a German-language newspaper in London published during World War II . It had an average circulation of 15,000 to 20,000 from March 1941 to June 1945 and was mainly read by Germans in exile. A lighter version was sold overseas and airdropped over Germany by the Royal Air Force . The paper mainly covered news about the ongoing war and the situation in Nazi Germany . In its first issue the paper claimed it was the only free and independent German-language newspaper left in Europe. SEE ALSO * Exilliteratur REFERENCES * ^ Sylvia Asmus (2006-06-28). "Erläuterungen: Die Zeitung" (in German). Deutsche Nationalbibliothek
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The Blitz
THE BLITZ refers to bombing by the Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe
(German Air Force) over Britain in 1940 and 1941, during the Second World War
Second World War
. The term was first used by the British press as an abbreviation of Blitzkrieg (lightning war). The Germans conducted a mass air offensive against industrial targets, towns and cities, which began with raids on London towards the end of the Battle of Britain
Battle of Britain
, a battle for air superiority over the United Kingdom. By September 1940 the Luftwaffe had failed to gain air superiority and the German air fleets (Luftflotten ) were ordered to attack London
London
, to draw RAF
RAF
Fighter Command into a battle of annihilation
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Hitlerism
NATIONAL SOCIALISM (German : Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as NAZISM (/ˈnɑːtsi.ɪzəm, ˈnæt-/ ), is the ideology and set of practices associated with the 20th-century German Nazi Party
Nazi Party
in Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
and of other far-right groups. Usually characterized as a form of fascism that incorporates scientific racism and antisemitism , Nazism's development was influenced by German nationalism (especially Pan-Germanism
Pan-Germanism
), the Völkisch movement , and the anti-Communist Freikorps
Freikorps
paramilitary groups that emerged during the Weimar Republic after Germany's defeat in the First World War
First World War

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