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Nikolaus Kopernikus
Nicolaus Copernicus
Nicolaus Copernicus
(/koʊˈpɜːrnɪkəs, kə-/;[2][3][4] Polish: Mikołaj Kopernik;[5] German: Nikolaus Kopernikus; Niklas Koppernigk; 19 February 1473 – 24 May 1543) was a Renaissance-era mathematician and astronomer who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun
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Copernicus (other)
Copernicus may refer to the astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543). Copernicus, Kopernik or Kopernikus may also refer to any of the following:Contents1 Science 2 Literature 3 Places 4 Entertainment 5 Other uses 6 See alsoScience[edit]OAO-3 Copernicus, an orbiting astronomical observatory (X-ray and UV) launched on 21 August 1972 Copernicus Programme, a joint initiative of the European Commission and European Space Agency Copernicus Science Centre, Warsaw, Poland Kopernik Observatory & Science Center, an observatory and science center in Vestal, New York, USA Copernicium, element 112 Copernicus or 55 Cancri, a binary star with a planetary system Copernicus Award (de), a Polish-German scientific award offered jointly by FNP and DFGLiterature[edit]Doctor Copernicus, a 1976 novel by John Banville Copernicus Publications, an academic publisherPlaces[edit]Copernicus Peak, the highest peak of Mount Hamilton, California Coper
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Expansion Of The Universe
The metric expansion of space is the increase of the distance between two distant parts of the universe with time.[1] It is an intrinsic expansion whereby the scale of space itself changes. It means that the early universe did not expand "into" anything and does not require space to exist "outside" the universe - instead space itself changed, carrying the early universe with it as it grew. This is a completely different kind of expansion than the expansions and explosions seen in daily life. It also seems to be a property of the entire universe as a whole rather than a phenomenon that applies just to one part of the universe or can be observed from "outside" it. Metric expansion is a key feature of Big Bang
Big Bang
cosmology, is modeled mathematically with the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker metric and is a generic property of the universe we inhabit
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Big Bang Nucleosynthesis
In physical cosmology, Big Bang
Big Bang
nucleosynthesis (abbreviated BBN, also known as primordial nucleosynthesis, arch(a)eonucleosynthesis, archonucleosynthesis, protonucleosynthesis and pal(a)eonucleosynthesis)[1] refers to the production of nuclei other than those of the lightest isotope of hydrogen (hydrogen-1, 1H, having a single proton as a nucleus) during the early phases of the Universe. Primordial nucleosynthesis is believed by most cosmologists to have taken place in the interval from roughly 10 seconds to 20 minutes after the Big Bang,[citation needed] and is calculated to be responsible for the formation of most of the universe's helium as the isotope helium-4 (4He), along with small amounts of the hydrogen isotope deuterium (2H or D), the helium isotope helium-3 (3He), and a very small amount of the lithium isotope lithium-7 (7Li)
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Inflation (cosmology)
In physical cosmology, cosmic inflation, cosmological inflation, or just inflation, is a theory of exponential expansion of space in the early universe. The inflationary epoch lasted from 10−36 seconds after the conjectured Big Bang
Big Bang
singularity to sometime between 10−33 and 10−32 seconds after the singularity. Following the inflationary period, the Universe
Universe
continues to expand, but at a less rapid rate.[1] Inflation
Inflation
theory was first developed by Alan Guth
Alan Guth
at Cornell
Cornell
in 1979. It developed further in the early 1980s. It explains the origin of the large-scale structure of the cosmos
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Dark Ages (cosmology)
The chronology of the universe describes the history and future of the universe according to Big Bang
Big Bang
cosmology. The earliest stages of the universe's existence are estimated as taking place 13.8 billion years ago, with an uncertainty of around 21 million years.[1] For the purposes of this summary, it is convenient to divide the chronology of the universe since it originated, into four parts. It is generally considered meaningless or unclear whether time existed before this chronology:1. The very early universe - the first picosecond (10−12) of cosmic time
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Cosmic Background Radiation
Cosmic background radiation
Cosmic background radiation
is electromagnetic radiation from the big bang. The origin of this radiation depends on the region of the spectrum that is observed. One component is the cosmic microwave background. This component is redshifted photons that have freely streamed from an epoch when the Universe
Universe
became transparent for the first time to radiation. Its discovery and detailed observations of its properties are considered one of the major confirmations of the Big Bang
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Gravitational Wave Background
The gravitational wave background (also GWB and stochastic background) is a random gravitational wave signal produced by a large number of weak, independent, and unresolved sources.[1] It is a possible target of gravitational wave detection experiments. The detection of such a background would have a profound impact on early-universe cosmology and on high-energy physics. The emission of gravitational waves from astrophysical sources can create a stochastic background of gravitational waves
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Cosmic Microwave Background
The cosmic microwave background (CMB) is electromagnetic radiation as a remnant from an early stage of the universe in Big Bang
Big Bang
cosmology. In older literature, the CMB
CMB
is also variously known as cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) or "relic radiation". The CMB
CMB
is a faint cosmic background radiation filling all space that is an important source of data on the early universe because it is the oldest electromagnetic radiation in the universe, dating to the epoch of recombination. With a traditional optical telescope, the space between stars and galaxies (the background) is completely dark. However, a sufficiently sensitive radio telescope shows a faint background noise, or glow, almost isotropic, that is not associated with any star, galaxy, or other object. This glow is strongest in the microwave region of the radio spectrum
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Cosmic Neutrino Background
The cosmic neutrino background (CNB, CνB[1]) is the universe's background particle radiation composed of neutrinos. They are sometimes known as relic neutrinos. Like the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB), the CνB is a relic of the big bang; while the CMB dates from when the universe was 379,000 years old, the CνB decoupled from matter when the universe was one second old. It is estimated that today, the CνB has a temperature of roughly 7000195000000000000♠1.95 K. Since low-energy neutrinos interact only very weakly with matter, they are notoriously difficult to detect, and the CνB might never be observed directly
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Cosmic Infrared Background
Cosmic infrared background
Cosmic infrared background
is a infrared radiation caused by stellar dust.Contents1 History 2 Origin of the cosmic infrared background 3 Foregrounds 4 Observation of the cosmic infrared background4.1 Direct detection 4.2 Fluctuation studies 4.3 Source counts5 See also 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit] Recognizing the cosmological importance of the darkness of the night sky (Olbers' paradox) and the first speculations on an extragalactic background light dates back to the first half of the 19th century. Despite its importance, the first attempts were made only in the 1950-60s to derive the value of the visual background due to galaxies, at that time based on the integrated starlight of these stellar systems. In the 1960s the absorption of starlight by dust was already taken into account, but without considering the re-emission of this absorbed energy in the infrared
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Hubble's Law
Hubble's law
Hubble's law
is the observation in physical cosmology that the universe is expanding. The expansion can be inferred by the fact that galaxies are moving away from the Earth at velocities proportional to their distance. In other words, the further they are the faster they are moving away from Earth
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Redshift
In physics, redshift happens when light or other electromagnetic radiation from an object is increased in wavelength, or shifted to the red end of the spectrum. In general, whether or not the radiation is within the visible spectrum, "redder" means an increase in wavelength – equivalent to a lower frequency and a lower photon energy, in accordance with, respectively, the wave and quantum theories of light. Some redshifts are an example of the Doppler effect, familiar in the change of apparent pitches of sirens and frequency of the sound waves emitted by speeding vehicles. A redshift occurs whenever a light source moves away from an observer. A special instance of this is the cosmological redshift, which is due to the expansion of the universe, and sufficiently distant light sources (generally more than a few million light years away) show redshift corresponding to the rate of increase in their distance from Earth
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Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker Metric
The Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker (FLRW) metric is an exact solution of Einstein's field equations of general relativity; it describes a homogeneous, isotropic expanding or contracting universe that is path connected, but not necessarily simply connected.[1][2][3] The general form of the metric follows from the geometric properties of homogeneity and isotropy; Einstein's field equations are only needed to derive the scale factor of the universe as a function of time. Depending on geographical or historical preferences, the set of the four scientists — Alexander Friedmann, Georges Lemaître, Howard P. Robertson and Arthur Geoffrey Walker
Arthur Geoffrey Walker
are customarily grouped as Friedmann or Friedmann–Robertson–Walker (FRW) or Robertson–Walker (RW) or Friedmann–Lemaître (FL)
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Lepton Epoch
In physical cosmology, the lepton epoch was the period in the evolution of the early universe in which the leptons dominated the mass of the universe. It started roughly 1 second after the Big Bang, after the majority of hadrons and anti-hadrons annihilated each other at the end of the hadron epoch. During the lepton epoch the temperature of the universe was still high enough to create lepton/anti-lepton pairs, so leptons and anti-leptons were in thermal equilibrium. Approximately 10 seconds after the Big Bang
Big Bang
the temperature of the universe had fallen to the point where lepton/anti-lepton pairs were no longer created.[1] Most leptons and anti-leptons were then eliminated in annihilation reactions, leaving a small residue of leptons
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Friedmann Equations
The Friedmann equations
Friedmann equations
are a set of equations in physical cosmology that govern the expansion of space in homogeneous and isotropic models of the universe within the context of general relativity. They were first derived by Alexander Friedmann
Alexander Friedmann
in 1922[1] from Einstein's field equations of gravitation for the Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker metric
Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker metric
and a perfect fluid with a given mass density ρ displaystyle rho and pressure p displaystyle p
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