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Nieuport 17
The Nieuport
Nieuport
17 C.1 was a French sesquiplane[fn 1] fighter designed and manufactured by the Nieuport
Nieuport
company. During its service in the First World War, the type's outstanding manoeuvrability and excellent rate of climb gave it a significant advantage over its contemporaries. The Nieuport
Nieuport
17 was an enlarged and reengined development of the earlier Nieuport
Nieuport
11, being more powerful and slightly larger than its ancestor. It also incorporated a number of recent innovations, such as the newly-developed Alkan-Hamy synchronization gear, which permitted the use of a fuselage-mounted synchronised Vickers gun, which could safely fire directly through the propeller
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Airco DH.2
The Airco
Airco
DH.2 was a single-seat biplane "pusher" aircraft which operated as a fighter during the First World War. It was the second pusher design by Geoffrey de Havilland
Geoffrey de Havilland
for Airco, based on his earlier DH.1 two-seater. The DH.2 was the first effectively armed British single-seat fighter and enabled Royal Flying Corps
Royal Flying Corps
(RFC) pilots to counter the "Fokker Scourge" that had given the Germans the advantage in the air in late 1915
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Elevator
An elevator (US and Canada) or lift (UK, Australia,[1][2][3] Ireland,[4][5] New Zealand,[6][7] and South Africa, Nigeria
Nigeria
[8]) is a type of vertical transportation that moves people or goods between floors (levels, decks) of a building, vessel, or other structure. Elevators are generally powered by electric motors that either drive traction cables and counterweight systems like a hoist, or pump hydraulic fluid to raise a cylindrical piston like a jack. In agriculture and manufacturing, an elevator is any type of conveyor device used to lift materials in a continuous stream into bins or silos. Several types exist, such as the chain and bucket elevator, grain auger screw conveyor using the principle of Archimedes' screw, or the chain and paddles or forks of hay elevators
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Kilowatt
The watt (symbol: W) is a unit of power. In the International System of Units (SI) it is defined as a derived unit of 1 joule per second,[1] and is used to quantify the rate of energy transfer
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Hotchkiss M1909
The Hotchkiss M1909 machine gun was a light machine gun of the early 20th century, developed and built by Hotchkiss et Cie. It was also known as the Hotchkiss Mark I, Hotchkiss Portative and M1909 Benét–Mercié. It was based on a design by a Viennese nobleman and Austrian Army officer, Adolf Odkolek von Újezd, who sold the manufacturing rights to Hotchkiss in 1893. Several improved versions were designed by Hotchkiss's American manager, Laurence Benét and his French assistant, Henri Mercié.Contents1 Design 2 Manufacture 3 Service 4 Users 5 Gallery 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External linksDesign[edit] It was gas-operated and air-cooled, had a maximum range of 3,800 m (4,200 yd) and weighed 12 kg (27 lb). Initial models were fed by a 30-round feed strip but later models could be either strip-fed or belt-fed. The U.S. types had a bipod, while some others used a small tripod
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Triplane
A triplane is a fixed-wing aircraft equipped with three vertical stacked wing planes. Tailplanes and canard foreplanes are not normally included in this count, although they may be occasionally.[citation needed]Contents1 Design principles 2 History2.1 Pioneer years 2.2 The fighting triplanes 2.3 Zeppelin
Zeppelin
killers 2.4 Bombers, transports and patrol 2.5 The racing triplanes 2.6 Private aviation3 Tandem triplanes 4 See also 5 References5.1 Notes 5.2 BibliographyDesign principles[edit]Front view of a triplaneThe triplane arrangement may be compared with the biplane in a number of ways. A triplane arrangement has a narrower wing chord than a biplane of similar span and area. This gives each wing-plane a slender appearance with higher aspect ratio, making it more efficient and giving increased lift. This potentially offers a faster rate of climb and tighter turning radius, both of which are important in a fighter
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Berliner Helicopter
The Berliner Helicopters were a series of experimental helicopters built by Henry Berliner between 1922 and 1925. The helicopters had only limited controllability but were the most significant step forward in helicopter design in the USA until the production of the Vought-Sikorsky VS-300 helicopter in 1940.[1] The 1922 flights of the Berliner and the de Bothezat H1 were the first by manned helicopters.[2][3][4]Contents1 Development 2 Design 3 Operational history 4 Survivors 5 Variants 6 Specifications (Berliner Helicopter No.5) 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksDevelopment[edit] Emile Berliner, an inventor famous for his invention of the flat gramaphone record, had experimented with intermeshing helicopters as early as 1907.[1] The initial design was underpowered and called for a lighter engine. Berliner developed a 36 hp five cylinder rotary engine with the Adams-Farwell Company from Dubuque, Iowa, producing the first rotary engine used for aircraft
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Emile Berliner
Emile Berliner
Emile Berliner
(May 20, 1851 – August 3, 1929), originally Emil Berliner, was a German-born American inventor. He is best known for inventing the flat disc phonograph record (called a “gramophone record” in British and American English) and the Gramophone. He founded the United States Gramophone Company
Gramophone Company
in 1894,[1] The Gramophone Company
Gramophone Company
in London, England, in 1897, Deutsche Grammophon
Deutsche Grammophon
in Hanover, Germany, in 1898, Berliner Gram-o-phone Company of Canada in Montreal
Montreal
in 1899 (chartered in 1904), and Victor Talking Machine Company in 1901 with Eldridge Johnson.Contents1 Early life 2 Career 3 Awards 4 Death 5 Publications5.1 Books 5.2 Patents6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksEarly life[edit] Berliner was born in Hanover, Germany, in 1851 into a Jewish merchant family
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Stringer (aircraft)
In aircraft and launch vehicle construction, a longeron, or stringer[1] or stiffener,[2] is a thin strip[not verified in body] of material to which the skin of an aircraft or propellant tank may be fastened. Aircraft[edit] In aircraft fuselage, stringers are attached to formers (also called frames)[citation needed] and run in the longitudinal direction of the aircraft. They are primarily responsible for transferring the aerodynamic loads acting on the skin onto the frames and formers. In the wings or horizontal stabilizer, longerons run spanwise (from wing root to wing tip) and attach between the ribs. The primary function here also is to transfer the bending loads acting on the wings onto the ribs and spar. Sometimes the terms "longeron" and "stringer" are used interchangeably. Historically, though, there is a subtle difference between the two terms
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Leading Edge
The leading edge is the part of the wing that first contacts the air;[1] alternatively it is the foremost edge of an airfoil section.[2] The first is an aerodynamic definition, the second a structural one. As an example of the distinction, during a tailslide, from an aerodynamic point of view, the trailing edge becomes the leading edge and vice versa but from a structural point of view the leading edge remains unchanged. Overview[edit] The structural leading edge may be equipped with one or more of the following: Leading edge
Leading edge
boots Leading edge
Leading edge
cuffs Leading edge
Leading edge
extensions Leading edge
Leading edge
slats Leading edge
Leading edge
slots Krueger flaps Stall strips Vortex generators.Associated terms are leading edge radius and leading edge stagnation point.[2] Seen in plan the leading edge may be straight or curved
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Aileron
An aileron (French for "little wing" or "fin") is a hinged flight control surface usually forming part of the trailing edge of each wing of a fixed-wing aircraft. Ailerons are used in pairs to control the aircraft in roll (or movement around the aircraft's longitudinal axis), which normally results in a change in flight path due to the tilting of the lift vector. Movement around this axis is called 'rolling' or 'banking'. The aileron was first patented by the British scientist and inventor Matthew Piers Watt Boulton in 1868, based on his 1864 paper On Aërial Locomotion. Even though there was extensive prior art in the 19th century for the aileron and its functional analog, wing warping, in 1906 the United States granted an expansive patent to the Wright Brothers of Dayton, Ohio, for the invention of a system of aerodynamic control that manipulated an airplane's control surfaces
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Rudder
A rudder is a primary control surface used to steer a ship, boat, submarine, hovercraft, aircraft, or other conveyance that moves through a fluid medium (generally air or water). On an aircraft the rudder is used primarily to counter adverse yaw and p-factor and is not the primary control used to turn the airplane. A rudder operates by redirecting the fluid past the hull (watercraft) or fuselage, thus imparting a turning or yawing motion to the craft. In basic form, a rudder is a flat plane or sheet of material attached with hinges to the craft's stern, tail, or after end. Often rudders are shaped so as to minimize hydrodynamic or aerodynamic drag. On simple watercraft, a tiller—essentially, a stick or pole acting as a lever arm—may be attached to the top of the rudder to allow it to be turned by a helmsman. In larger vessels, cables, pushrods, or hydraulics may be used to link rudders to steering wheels
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Gordon Bennett Trophy (aeroplanes)
The Gordon Bennett Aviation Trophy was an international airplane racing trophy awarded by James Gordon Bennett Jr., the American owner and publisher of the New York Herald
New York Herald
newspaper. The trophy is one of three Gordon Bennett awards: Bennett was also the sponsor of an automobile race and a ballooning competition.[1][2] The terms of the trophy competition were the same as those of the Schneider Trophy: each race was hosted by the nation which had won the preceding race, and the trophy would be won outright by the nation whose team won the race three times in succession
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René Dorme
Sous Lieutenant René Pierre Marie Dorme (30 January 1894 – 25 May 1917), Légion d'honneur, Médaille militaire, Croix de Guerre
Croix de Guerre
was a French World War I fighter ace credited with 23 victories.[1] Rene Dorme served as an artilleryman in North Africa before becoming a pilot. He was injured in a crash before he saw action. He did not get into combat until March 1916. He was posted to N3 to fly Nieuport fighters in June 1916.[2] He was officially noted as having at least 43 probable victories.[3] Inline citations[edit]^ http://www.theaerodrome.com/aces/france/dorme.php ^ Nieuport Aces of World War I. pp. 44–45.  ^ http://www.theaerodrome.com/forum/attachments/people/20016d1292344618-french-aces-dorme.pdfReferences[edit]Nieuport Aces of World War 1. Norman Franks
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Battle Of The Somme
 British Empire Australia  Bermuda  Canada  India  Newfoundland  New Zealand  South Africa  Southern Rhodesia  United Kingdom France  German EmpireCommanders and leaders Douglas Haig Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Henry Rawlinson Émile Fayolle Hubert Gough Joseph Alfred Micheler Crown Prince Rupprecht of Bavaria Max von Gallwitz Fritz von BelowStrength1st July 390,000 in 13 divisions 330,000 in 11 divisions July–November 1,530,000 in 50 divisions 1,440,000 in 48 divisions 1st July 315,000 in 10 1/2 divisions July–November 1,500,000 in 50 divisionsCasualties and losses c. 420,000[1][2][3] c. 200,000[4][5][3] c
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France
France
France
(French: [fʁɑ̃s]), officially the French Republic (French: République française [ʁepyblik fʁɑ̃sɛz]), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France
France
in western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France
France
extends from the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the English Channel
English Channel
and the North Sea, and from the Rhine
Rhine
to the Atlantic Ocean. The overseas territories include French Guiana
French Guiana
in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans
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