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Nicolas Iv
Pope
Pope
Nicholas IV (Latin: Nicolaus IV; 30 September 1227 – 4 April 1292), born Girolamo Masci, Pope
Pope
from 22 February 1288 to his death in 1292. He was the first Franciscan
Franciscan
to be elected pope.[1]Contents1 Early life 2 Pontificate2.1 Papal conclave 2.2 New Cardinals 2.3 Actions3 Death 4 Taxatio 5 References 6 BibliographyEarly life[edit] Jerome
Jerome
Masci (Girolamo Masci) was born on 30 September 1227 at Lisciano, near Ascoli Piceno.[2][3] He was a pious, peace-loving man whose goals as a Franciscan
Franciscan
friar were to protect the Church, promote the crusades, and root out heresy
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Honorius IV
Pope
Pope
Honorius IV (c. 1210 – 3 April 1287), born Giacomo Savelli, was Pope
Pope
from 2 April 1285 to his death in 1287. During his pontificate he largely continued to pursue the pro-French political policy of his predecessor, Pope
Pope
Martin IV.Contents1 Early career 2 Elected Pope 3 Sicilian Conflict 4 Rome 5 Empire 6 Other acts 7 Contacts with the Mongols 8 See also 9 References 10 Bibliography 11 External linksEarly career[edit] Giacomo Savelli was born in Rome
Rome
into the rich and influential family of the Savelli.[1] His father was Luca Savelli, who died as Senator of Rome
Rome
in 1266.[2] His mother Joanna belonged to the Aldobrandeschi family.[3] He studied at the University of Paris, and held a prebend and a canonry at the cathedral of Châlons-sur-Marne
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Franco-Mongol Alliance
Several attempts at a Franco-Mongol alliance
Franco-Mongol alliance
against the Islamic caliphates, their common enemy, were made by various leaders among the Frankish Crusaders and the Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
in the 13th century. Such an alliance might have seemed an obvious choice: the Mongols were already sympathetic to Christianity, given the presence of many influential Nestorian Christians in the Mongol court. The Franks
Franks
(Western Europeans and those in the Crusader States of the Levant[1]) were open to the idea of support from the East, in part owing to the long-running legend of the mythical Prester John, an Eastern king in a magical kingdom who many believed would one day come to the assistance of the Crusaders in the Holy Land.[2][3] The Franks
Franks
and Mongols also shared a common enemy in the Muslims
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Cardinal Bishop
A cardinal (Latin: Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae cardinalis, literally Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church) is a senior ecclesiastical leader, considered a Prince of the Church, and usually (now always for those created when still within the voting age-range) an ordained bishop of the Roman Catholic Church. The cardinals of the Church are collectively known as the College of Cardinals. The duties of the cardinals include attending the meetings of the College and making themselves available individually or in groups to the Pope
Pope
as requested. Most have additional duties, such as leading a diocese or archdiocese or managing a department of the Roman Curia. A cardinal's primary duty is electing the bishop of Rome
Rome
when the see becomes vacant
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Palestrina
Palestrina
Palestrina
(ancient Praeneste; Ancient Greek: Πραίνεστος, Prainestos) is an ancient city and comune (municipality) with a population of about 21,000, in Lazio, about 35 kilometres (22 miles) east of Rome
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Pope Martin IV
Pope
Pope
Martin IV, (Latin: Martinus IV; c. 1210/1220 – 28 March 1285), born Simon de Brion, was Pope
Pope
from 22 February 1281[1] to his death in 1285. He was the last French pope to have held court in Rome; all subsequent French popes held court in Avignon
Avignon
(the Avignon
Avignon
Papacy).Contents1 Early life 2 Cardinal Simon de Brion 3 Three Conclaves of 1276 4 Election of Nicholas III 5 Conclave of 1280-1281 6 Pope
Pope
Martin IV 7 Death 8 Notes 9 BibliographyEarly life[edit] Simon de Brion, son of Jean, sieur de Brion, was born at the château of Meinpincien,[2] Île-de-France, France, in the decade following 1210
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Papal Election, 1287-1288
The papal election of 1287–88 (April 4 – February 22) was the deadliest papal election in the history of the Roman Catholic Church, with six (or five) of the sixteen (or fifteen) cardinal electors perishing during the deliberations. Eventually, the cardinals elected Girolamo Masci, O.Min. as Pope Nicholas IV, almost a year after the death of Pope Honorius IV, who died on April 3, 1287. Nicholas IV was the first Franciscan
Franciscan
pope.[1] The cardinals' deaths are usually attributed to malaria.[2][3][4] After the deaths of the six cardinals, the remaining electors—with the exception of Masci—left Rome
Rome
and reassembled on 15 February 1288.[5] When the Cardinals reassembled in February, 1288, there were seven electors left: Latino Malabranca, Bentivenga de Bentivengis, Girolamo Masci, Bernard de Languissel, Matteo Rosso Orsini, Giacomo Colonna, and Benedetto Caetani
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Pope Honorius IV
Pope
Pope
Honorius IV (c. 1210 – 3 April 1287), born Giacomo Savelli, was Pope
Pope
from 2 April 1285 to his death in 1287. During his pontificate he largely continued to pursue the pro-French political policy of his predecessor, Pope
Pope
Martin IV.Contents1 Early career 2 Elected Pope 3 Sicilian Conflict 4 Rome 5 Empire 6 Other acts 7 Contacts with the Mongols 8 See also 9 References 10 Bibliography 11 External linksEarly career[edit] Giacomo Savelli was born in Rome
Rome
into the rich and influential family of the Savelli.[1] His father was Luca Savelli, who died as Senator of Rome
Rome
in 1266.[2] His mother Joanna belonged to the Aldobrandeschi family.[3] He studied at the University of Paris, and held a prebend and a canonry at the cathedral of Châlons-sur-Marne
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Ubi Periculum
Ubi periculum (Latin: Where danger) was a papal bull promulgated by Pope Gregory X
Pope Gregory X
during the Second Council of Lyon
Second Council of Lyon
on 7 July 1274[1] that established the papal conclave as the method of selection for a pope. The regulations for a conclave drew on the experiences of the Cardinals, who had been subjected to the tactics adopted by the magistrates of Viterbo
Viterbo
against the cardinals in the protracted papal election of 1268–1271, which had produced Gregory X. A pair of political scientists has suggested that the fact that Gregory X was not a cardinal before his election to the Papacy caused him to adopt a policy that de-emphasized the interests of the College of Cardinals.[2] Such an interpretation is unlikely, or at least incomplete
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Cardinal (Catholicism)
A cardinal (Latin: Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae cardinalis, literally Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church) is a senior ecclesiastical leader, considered a Prince of the Church, and usually (now always for those created when still within the voting age-range) an ordained bishop of the Roman Catholic Church. The cardinals of the Church are collectively known as the College of Cardinals. The duties of the cardinals include attending the meetings of the College and making themselves available individually or in groups to the Pope
Pope
as requested. Most have additional duties, such as leading a diocese or archdiocese or managing a department of the Roman Curia. A cardinal's primary duty is electing the bishop of Rome
Rome
when the see becomes vacant
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Holy See
The Holy See
Holy See
(Italian: Santa Sede; Latin: Sancta Sedes; Ecclesiastical Latin: [ˈsaŋkta ˈsedes]), also referred to as the See of Rome, is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, and an independent sovereign entity. It serves as the central point of reference for the Catholic Church everywhere and the focal point of communion due to its position as the pre-eminent episcopal see of the universal church. Today, it is responsible for the governance of all Catholics, organised in their Particular Churches, Patriarchates and religious institutes. As an independent sovereign entity, holding the Vatican City
Vatican City
enclave in Rome
Rome
as an independent state, it maintains diplomatic relations with other states
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College Of Cardinals
The College of Cardinals, formerly styled the Sacred College of Cardinals, is the body of all cardinals of the Catholic Church.[1] Its membership is 214, as of 19 March 2018.[update] Most cardinals exit the College only by death, although a few leave it by election to the papacy, and still fewer leave by resignation or dismissal. Changes in life expectancy partly account for the increases in the size of the College.[2] Since the emergence of the College of Cardinals
College of Cardinals
in the Early Middle Ages, the size of the body has historically been limited by popes, ecumenical councils, and even the College itself
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Rabban Bar Sauma
Rabban Bar Ṣawma (c. 1220–1294) (Syriac language: ܪܒܢ ܒܪ ܨܘܡܐ; Syriac pronunciation: [rɑbbɑn bɑrsˤɑwma]), also known as Rabban Ṣawma or Rabban Çauma,[2] (Chinese: 拉賓掃務瑪; pinyin: lābīn sǎowùmǎ), was a Turkic Chinese monk turned diplomat of the "Nestorian" Church of the East
Church of the East
in China. He is known for embarking on a pilgrimage from Mongol-controlled China to Jerusalem
Jerusalem
with one of his students, Rabban Markos
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Edward I Of England
Edward
Edward
I (17/18 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), also known as Edward Longshanks and the Hammer of the Scots (Latin: Malleus Scotorum), was King of England
King of England
from 1272 to 1307. Before his accession to the throne, he was commonly referred to as The Lord Edward.[1] He spent much of his reign reforming royal administration and common law. Through an extensive legal inquiry, Edward
Edward
investigated the tenure of various feudal liberties, while the law was reformed through a series of statutes regulating criminal and property law. Increasingly, however, Edward's attention was drawn towards military affairs. As the first son of Henry III, Edward
Edward
was involved early in the political intrigues of his father's reign, which included an outright rebellion by the English barons. In 1259, he briefly sided with a baronial reform movement, supporting the Provisions of Oxford
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Alfonso III Of Aragon
Alfonso III (4 November 1265, in Valencia
Valencia
– 18 June 1291), called the Liberal (el Liberal) or the Free (also "the Frank," from el Franc), was the King of Aragon
King of Aragon
and Count of Barcelona
Count of Barcelona
(as Alfons II) from 1285. He conquered the Kingdom of Majorca
Kingdom of Majorca
between his succession and 1287. He was a son of King Peter III of Aragon
Peter III of Aragon
and Constance, daughter and heiress of King Manfred of Sicily. Soon after assuming the throne, he conducted a campaign to reincorporate the Balearic Islands
Balearic Islands
into the Kingdom of Aragon
Kingdom of Aragon
- which had been lost due to the division of the kingdom by his grandfather, James I of Aragon
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James II Of Aragon
Aragon
Aragon
(/ˈærəɡɒn/ or /ˈærəɡən/, Spanish and Aragonese: Aragón [aɾaˈɣon], Catalan: Aragó [əɾəˈɣo] or [aɾaˈɣo]) is an autonomous community in Spain, coextensive with the medieval Kingdom of Aragon. Located in northeastern Spain, the Aragonese autonomous community comprises three provinces (from north to south): Huesca, Zaragoza, and Teruel. Its capital is Zaragoza
Zaragoza
(also called Saragossa in English). The current Statute of Autonomy declares Aragon a historic nationality of Spain. Covering an area of 47720 km2 (18420 sq mi)[2], the region's terrain ranges diversely from permanent glaciers to verdant valleys, rich pasture lands and orchards, through to the arid steppe plains of the central lowlands
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