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Nicolas De Nicolay
Nicolas de Nicolay, Sieur d'Arfeville & de Belair, (1517–1583) of the Nicolay (family)
Nicolay (family)
was a French geographer.Contents1 Biography 2 Quatre premiers livres des navigations 3 Works and maps 4 Sources 5 ReferencesBiography[edit] Born at la Grave in Oisans, in the Dauphiné, he left France in 1542 to participate in the siege of Perpignan
Perpignan
which was then held by Emperor Charles V of Austria. In 1547 he sailed to Scotland where his intervention ended the siege of St Andrews Castle. In 1548 he returned to Scotland to take away Mary, Queen of Scots
Mary, Queen of Scots
from Dumbarton Castle, sailing around the west coast of Ireland.[1] He travelled around Germany, Denmark, England, Sweden, Italy, Spain, Greece and Turkey and served in the armies of most of these countries
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Germany
Coordinates: 51°N 9°E / 51°N 9°E / 51; 9Federal Republic
Republic
of Germany Bundesrepublik Deutschland (German)[a]FlagCoat of armsMotto:  "Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit" (de facto) "Unity and Justice and Freedom"Anthem: "Deutschlandlied" (third verse only)[b] "Song of Germany"Location of  Germany  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)Location of
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garb
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Biblioteca Nacional De España
The Biblioteca Nacional de España
Biblioteca Nacional de España
(National Library of Spain) is a major public library, the largest in Spain, and one of the largest in the world. It is located in Madrid, on the Paseo de Recoletos.Contents1 History 2 The library today 3 See also 4 References 5 External links 6 ImagesHistory[edit] The library was founded by King Philip V in 1712 as the Palace Public Library (Biblioteca Pública de Palacio). The Royal Letters Patent that he granted, the predecessor of the current legal deposit requirement, made it mandatory for printers to submit a copy of every book printed in Spain
Spain
to the library. In 1836, the library's status as Crown property was revoked and ownership was transferred to the Ministry of Governance (Ministerio de la Gobernación)
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National Library Of Australia
The National Library of Australia
Australia
is the largest reference library in Australia, responsible under the terms of the National Library Act for "maintaining and developing a national collection of library material, including a comprehensive collection of library material relating to Australia
Australia
and the Austr
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Système Universitaire De Documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify, track and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers. It is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education (fr) (ABES). External links[edit]Official websiteThis article relating to library science or information science is a stub
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International Standard Name Identifier
The International Standard Name Identifier (ISNI) is an identifier for uniquely identifying the public identities of contributors to media content such as books, television programmes, and newspaper articles. Such an identifier consists of 16 digits. It can optionally be displayed as divided into four blocks. It was developed under the auspices of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) as Draft International Standard 27729; the valid standard was published on 15 March 2012
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Library Of Congress Control Number
The Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Control Number (LCCN) is a serially based system of numbering cataloging records in the Library of Congress
Library of Congress
in the United States. It has nothing to do with the contents of any book, and should not be confused with Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Classification.Contents1 History 2 Format 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit] The LCCN numbering system has been in use since 1898, at which time the acronym LCCN originally stood for Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Card Number. It has also been called the Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Catalog Card Number, among other names
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National Library Of Scotland
The National Library
Library
of Scotland
Scotland
(Scottish Gaelic: Leabharlann Nàiseanta na h-Alba, Scots: Naitional Leebrar o Scotland) is the legal deposit library of Scotland
Scotland
and is one of the country's National Collections. Its main public building is in Edinburgh
Edinburgh
city centre on George IV Bridge, between the Old Town and the university quarter. There is also a more modern building (1980s) in a residential area on the south side of the town centre, on Causewayside. This was built to accommodate some of the specialist collections, such as maps and science collections, and to provide extra large-scale storage
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Bibliothèque Nationale De France
The Bibliothèque nationale de France
France
(BnF, English: National Library of France"; French: [bi.bli.jɔ.tɛk na.sjɔ.nal də fʁɑ̃s]) is the national library of France, located in Paris. It is the national repository of all that is published in France
France
and also holds extensive historical collections.Contents1 History 2 New buildings 3 Mission 4 Manuscript
Manuscript
collection 5 Digital library 6 List of directors6.1 1369–1792 6.2 1792–present7 In popular culture 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External linksHistory[edit]See also: History of the Bibliothèque nationale de France (fr)The National Library of France
France
traces its origin to the royal library founded at the Louvre Palace
Louvre Palace
by Charles V in 1368
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Library Of Congress
The Library of Congress
Library of Congress
(LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States
United States
Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States. It is the oldest federal cultural institution in the United States. The Library is housed in three buildings on Capitol Hill in Washington, D.C.; it also maintains the Packard Campus in Culpeper, Virginia, which houses the National Audio-Visual Conservation Center.[3] The Library of Congress
Library of Congress
claims to be the largest library in the world.[4][5] Its "collections are universal, not limited by subject, format, or national boundary, and include research materials from all parts of the world and in more than 450 languages
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Janissaries
The Janissaries
Janissaries
(Ottoman Turkish: يڭيچرى‎ yeñiçeri [jeniˈt͡ʃeɾi], meaning "new soldier") were elite infantry units that formed the Ottoman Sultan's household troops, bodyguards and the first modern standing army in Europe.[3][4] The corps was most likely established during the reign of Murad I
Murad I
(1362–89).[5] They began as an elite corps of slaves made up of kidnapped young Christian boys who were forcefully converted to Islam,[6] and became famed for internal cohesion cemented by strict discipline and order. Unlike typical slaves, they were paid regular salaries. Forbidden to marry or engage in trade, their complete loyalty to the Sultan
Sultan
was expected.[7] By the seventeenth century, due to a dramatic increase in the size of the Ottoman standing army, the corps' initially strict recruitment policy was relaxed
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Sultan
Sultan
Sultan
(/ˈsʌltən/; Arabic: سلطان‎ sulṭān, pronounced [sʊlˈtˤɑːn, solˈtˤɑːn]) is a position with several historical meanings. Originally, it was an Arabic
Arabic
abstract noun meaning "strength", "authority", "rulership", derived from the verbal noun سلطة sulṭah, meaning "authority" or "power". Later, it came to be used as the title of certain rulers who claimed almost full sovereignty in practical terms (i.e., the lack of dependence on any higher ruler), albeit without claiming the overall caliphate, or to refer to a powerful governor of a province within the caliphate. The adjective form of the word is "sultanic",[1] and the dynasty and lands ruled by a sultan are referred to as a sultanate (سلطنة salṭanah). The term is distinct from king (ملك malik), despite both referring to a sovereign ruler
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Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
(French: [ʒɑnoɡyst dominik ɛ̃ɡʁ]; 29 August 1780 – 14 January 1867) was a French Neoclassical painter. Although he considered himself to be a painter of history in the tradition of Nicolas Poussin
Nicolas Poussin
and Jacques-Louis David, it is Ingres's portraits, both painted and drawn, that are recognized as his greatest legacy. Ingres was profoundly influenced by past artistic traditions, and aspired to become the guardian of academic orthodoxy against the ascendant Romantic style, exemplified by Eugène Delacroix. His expressive distortions of form and space made him an important precursor of modern art, influencing Picasso, Matisse
Matisse
and other modernists. Born into a modest family in Montauban, he travelled to Paris
Paris
to study in the studio of David
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Eugène Delacroix
Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix
Eugène Delacroix
(French: [ø.ʒɛn də.la.kʁwa]; 26 April 1798 – 13 August 1863) was a French Romantic artist regarded from the outset of his career as the leader of the French Romantic school.[1] As a painter and muralist, Delacroix's use of expressive brushstrokes and his study of the optical effects of colour profoundly shaped the work of the Impressionists, while his passion for the exotic inspired the artists of the Symbolist movement. A fine lithographer, Delacroix illustrated various works of William Shakespeare, the Scottish author Walter Scott
Walter Scott
and the German author Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. In contrast to the Neoclassical perfectionism of his chief rival Ingres, Delacroix took for his inspiration the art of Rubens and painters of the Venetian Renaissance, with an attendant emphasis on colour and movement rather than clarity of outline and carefully modelled form
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Orientalism
Orientalism
Orientalism
is a term that is used by art historians, literary and cultural studies scholars for the imitation or depiction of aspects in Middle Eastern, South Asian, and East Asian cultures (Eastern world). These depictions are usually done by writers, designers and artists from the West. In particular, Orientalist painting, depicting more specifically "the Middle East",[1] was one of the many specialisms of 19th-century academic art, and the literature of Western countries took a similar interest in Oriental themes. Since the publication of Edward Said's Orientalism
Orientalism
in 1978, much academic discourse has begun to use the term "Orientalism" to refer to a general patronizing Western attitude towards Middle Eastern, Asian and North African societies
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