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Newcastle Upon Tyne
NEWCASTLE UPON TYNE (RP : /ˌnjuːkɑːsəl əˌpɒn ˈtaɪn/ ( listen ); locally : /njəˈkæsəl əpən ˈtaɪn/ ( listen )), commonly known as NEWCASTLE, is a city in Tyne and Wear
Tyne and Wear
, North East England , 103 miles (166 km) south of Edinburgh
Edinburgh
and 277 miles (446 km) north of London
London
on the northern bank of the River Tyne
River Tyne
, 8.5 mi (13.7 km) from the North Sea
North Sea
. Newcastle is the most populous city in the North East, and forms the core of the Tyneside
Tyneside
conurbation , the eighth most populous urban area in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
. Newcastle is a member of the English Core Cities Group and is a member of the Eurocities network of European cities
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Countries Of The United Kingdom
The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(UK) comprises four countries : England
England
, Northern Ireland
Ireland
, Scotland
Scotland
and Wales
Wales
. Within the United Kingdom, a unitary sovereign state , Northern Ireland, Scotland
Scotland
and Wales
Wales
have gained a degree of autonomy through the process of devolution . The UK Parliament and British Government deal with all reserved matters for Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
and Scotland
Scotland
and all non-transferred matters for Wales, but not in general matters that have been devolved to the Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Assembly , Scottish Parliament and National Assembly for Wales
Wales

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Sovereign State
A SOVEREIGN STATE is, in international law , a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. International law
International law
defines sovereign states as having a permanent population, defined territory, one government , and the capacity to enter into relations with other sovereign states . It is also normally understood that a sovereign state is neither dependent on nor subjected to any other power or state . The existence or disappearance of a state is a question of fact . While according to the declarative theory of statehood, a sovereign state can exist without being recognised by other sovereign states , unrecognised states will often find it hard to exercise full treaty-making powers and engage in diplomatic relations with other sovereign states
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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Latin Language
LATIN (Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet
. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium
Latium
, in the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
. Through the power of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages
Romance languages
, such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian
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Regions Of England
The REGIONS OF ENGLAND, formerly known as the GOVERNMENT OFFICE REGIONS, are the highest tier of sub-national division in England. Between 1994 and 2011, nine regions had officially devolved functions within government. While they no longer fulfill this role, they continue to be used for statistical and some administrative purposes. They define areas (constituencies) for the purposes of elections to the European Parliament
European Parliament
. Eurostat
Eurostat
also uses them to demarcate first level Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) regions (" NUTS
NUTS
1 regions") within the European Union
European Union
. The regions generally follow the boundaries of the former standard regions , established in the 1940s for statistical purposes
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Nomenclature Of Territorial Units For Statistics
The CLASSIFICATION OF TERRITORIAL UNITS FOR STATISTICS (NUTS; French : Nomenclature des unités territoriales statistiques) is a geocode standard for referencing the subdivisions of countries for statistical purposes. The standard is developed and regulated by the European Union
European Union
, and thus only covers the member states of the EU in detail. The Classification of Territorial Units for Statistics is instrumental in the European Union's Structural Fund delivery mechanisms and for locating the area where goods and services subject to European public procurement legislation are to be delivered. For each EU member country, a hierarchy of three NUTS levels is established by Eurostat
Eurostat
in agreement with each member state; the subdivisions in some levels do not necessarily correspond to administrative divisions within the country
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ISO 3166-2
ISO 3166-2 is part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization
Standardization
(ISO), and defines codes for identifying the principal subdivisions (e.g., provinces or states ) of all countries coded in ISO 3166-1 . The official name of the standard is Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions – Part 2: Country subdivision code. It was first published in 1998. The purpose of ISO 3166-2 is to establish an international standard of short and unique alphanumeric codes to represent the relevant administrative divisions and dependent territories of all countries in a more convenient and less ambiguous form than their full names
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ONS Coding System
In the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, the OFFICE FOR NATIONAL STATISTICS maintains a series of codes to represent a wide range of geographical areas of the UK, for use in tabulating census and other statistical data. These codes are referred to as ONS CODES or GSS CODES referring to the Government Statistical Service of which ONS is part. The previous hierarchical system of codes has been replaced as from January 2011 by a nine-character code for all types of geography, in which there is no relation between the code for a lower-tier area and the corresponding parent area. The older coding system has now been phased out
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UTC+1
UTC+01:00 is a time offset that adds 1 hour to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). This time is used in: * Central European Time
Central European Time
* West Africa Time
West Africa Time
* Western European Summer Time * British Summer Time
British Summer Time
* Irish Standard Time * Romance Standard Time (Microsoft Windows Control panel) * Swatch Internet Time
Swatch Internet Time
* EVE Online
EVE Online
In ISO 8601 the associated time would be written as 2017-08-08T12:06:10+01:00
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British National Grid Reference System
The ORDNANCE SURVEY NATIONAL GRID REFERENCE SYSTEM is a system of geographic grid references used in Great Britain, distinct from latitude and longitude . It is often called BRITISH NATIONAL GRID (BNG). The Ordnance Survey (OS) devised the national grid reference system, and it is heavily used in their survey data, and in maps based on those surveys, whether published by the Ordnance Survey or by commercial map producers. Grid references are also commonly quoted in other publications and data sources, such as guide books and government planning documents
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Telephone Numbering Plan
A TELEPHONE NUMBERING PLAN is a type of numbering scheme used in telecommunication to assign telephone numbers to subscriber telephones or other telephony endpoints. Telephone numbers are the addresses of participants in a telephone network, reachable by a system of destination code routing. Telephone numbering plans are defined in each of administrative regions of the public switched telephone network (PSTN) and they are also present in private telephone networks. For public number systems, geographic location plays a role in the sequence of numbers assigned to each telephone subscriber. Numbering plans may follow a variety of design strategies which have often arisen from the historical evolution of individual telephone networks and local requirements. A broad division is commonly recognized, distinguishing open numbering plans and closed numbering plans
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Received Pronunciation
RECEIVED PRONUNCIATION (RP) is the accent of Standard English in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and is defined in the Concise Oxford English Dictionary as "the standard accent of English as spoken in the south of England ", although it can be heard from native speakers throughout England and Wales. Peter Trudgill estimated in 1974 that 3% of people in Britain were RP speakers, but this rough estimate has been questioned by the phonetician J. Windsor Lewis . RP enjoys high social prestige in Britain, being thought of as the accent of those with power, money, and influence, though it may be perceived negatively by some as being associated with undeserved privilege. Since the 1960s, a greater permissiveness towards regional English varieties has taken hold in education
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Daylight Saving Time
DAYLIGHT SAVING TIME (abbreviated DST), commonly referred to as DAYLIGHT SAVINGS TIME in speech, and known as SUMMER TIME in some countries, is the practice of advancing clocks during summer months so that evening daylight lasts longer, while sacrificing normal sunrise times. Typically, regions that use daylight saving time adjust clocks forward one hour close to the start of spring and adjust them backward in the autumn to standard time. George Hudson proposed the idea of daylight saving in 1895. The German Empire
German Empire
and Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
organized the first nationwide implementation, starting on April 30, 1916. Many countries have used it at various times since then, particularly since the energy crisis of the 1970s . DST is generally not observed near the equator, where sunrise times do not vary enough to justify it
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British Summer Time
During BRITISH SUMMER TIME (BST), civil time in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is advanced one hour forward of Greenwich Mean Time
Greenwich Mean Time
(GMT) (in effect, changing the time zone from UTC +0 to UTC+1), so that evenings have more daylight and mornings have less. BST begins at 01:00 GMT on the last Sunday of March and ends at 01:00 GMT (02:00 BST) on the last Sunday of October. Since 22 October 1995 the starting and finishing times of daylight saving time across the European Union
European Union
have been aligned – for instance Central European Summer Time begins and ends on the same Sundays at exactly the same time (that is, 02:00 CET , which is 01:00 GMT). Between 1972 and 1995, BST began and ended at 02:00 GMT on the third Sunday in March (or second Sunday when Easter fell on the third) and fourth Sunday in October
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