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New Model Army
The NEW MODEL ARMY of England was formed in 1645 by the Parliamentarians in the English Civil War
English Civil War
, and was disbanded in 1660 after the Restoration . It differed from other armies in the series of civil wars referred to as the Wars of the Three Kingdoms
Wars of the Three Kingdoms
in that it was intended as an army liable for service anywhere in the country (including in Scotland
Scotland
and Ireland
Ireland
), rather than being tied to a single area or garrison . Its soldiers became full-time professionals , rather than part-time militia . To establish a professional officer corps, the army's leaders were prohibited from having seats in either the House of Lords
House of Lords
or House of Commons . This was to encourage their separation from the political or religious factions among the Parliamentarians
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Military Reserve Force
A MILITARY RESERVE FORCE is a military organisation composed of citizens of a country who combine a military role or career with a civilian career. They are not normally kept under arms and their main role is to be available to fight when a nation mobilises for total war or to defend against invasion. Reserve forces are generally not considered part of a permanent standing body of armed forces. The existence of reserve forces allows a nation to reduce its peacetime military expenditures while maintaining a force prepared for war. It is analogous to the historical model of military recruitment before the era of standing armies. In some countries, such as Canada, United States, Spain
Spain
and the United Kingdom, members of the reserve forces are civilians who maintain military skills by training, typically one weekend a month. They may do so as individuals or as members of standing reserve regiments, for example the Army Reserve of the United Kingdom
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House Of Lords
The HOUSE OF LORDS OF THE UNITED KINGDOM, also known as the HOUSE OF PEERS, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom . Like the House of Commons , it meets in the Palace of Westminster
Palace of Westminster
. Officially, the full name of the house is THE RIGHT HONOURABLE THE LORDS SPIRITUAL AND TEMPORAL OF THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND IN PARLIAMENT ASSEMBLED. Unlike the elected House of Commons, all members of the House of Lords (excluding 90 hereditary peers elected among themselves and two peers who are ex officio members) are appointed. The membership of the House of Lords
House of Lords
is drawn from the peerage and is made up of Lords Spiritual and Lords Temporal
Lords Temporal
. The Lords Spiritual are 26 bishops in the established Church of England
Church of England

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Standing Army
A STANDING ARMY, unlike a reserve army , is a permanent, often professional, army . It is composed of full-time soldiers (who may be either career soldiers or conscripts ) and is not disbanded during times of peace. It differs from army reserves , who are enrolled for the long term, but activated only during wars or natural disasters , and temporary armies, which are raised from the civilian population only during a war or threat of war and disbanded once the war or threat is over. Standing armies tend to be better equipped, better trained, and better prepared for emergencies, defensive deterrence, and particularly, wars. The term dates from approximately 1600, although the phenomenon it describes is much older. HISTORY Tiglath-Pileser III of Assyria
Assyria
(ruled 745–727 BC) created Assyria's first standing army. The first known standing armies in Europe were in ancient Greece
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Garrison
GARRISON (various spellings) (from the French garnison, itself from the verb garnir, "to equip") is the collective term for a body of troops stationed in a particular location, originally to guard it, but now often simply using it as a home base. The garrison is usually in a city , town , fort , castle , ship or similar. " Garrison
Garrison
town" is a common expression for any town that has a military base nearby. CONTENTS * 1 Arab
Arab
garrison * 2 British and Irish garrison * 3 Israeli garrison * 4 Ancient Rome garrison * 5 References ARAB GARRISON" Garrison
Garrison
towns" (Arabic : حصون ‎‎) were used during the Arab Islamic conquests of Middle Eastern lands by Arab
Arab
- Muslim
Muslim
armies to increase their dominance over indigenous populations
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Scotland
SCOTLAND (/ˈskɒt.lənd/ ; Scots : ; Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
: Alba
Alba
( listen )) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain
Great Britain
. It shares a border with England
England
to the south, and is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
, with the North Sea
North Sea
to the east and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the south-west. In addition to the mainland, the country is made up of more than 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides . The Kingdom of Scotland
Kingdom of Scotland
emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages
Early Middle Ages
and continued to exist until 1707
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Ireland
IRELAND (/ˈaɪərlənd/ ( listen ); Irish : Éire ( listen ); Ulster-Scots : Airlann ) is an island in the North Atlantic
North Atlantic
. It is separated from Great Britain
Great Britain
to its east by the North Channel , the Irish Sea , and St George\'s Channel . Ireland
Ireland
is the second-largest island of the British Isles
British Isles
, the third-largest in Europe
Europe
, and the twentieth-largest on Earth
Earth
. Politically, Ireland
Ireland
is divided between the Republic of Ireland (officially named Ireland
Ireland
), which covers five-sixths of the island, and Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
, which is part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, in the northeast of the island
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Puritans
The PURITANS were a group of English Reformed
Reformed
Protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries who sought to "purify" the Church of England
Church of England
from its "Catholic " practices, maintaining that the Church of England
Church of England
was only partially reformed
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Conscription
Military service National service Conscription crisis Conscientious objector
Conscientious objector
Alternative civilian service CONSCRIPTION BY COUNTRY * v * t * e CONSCRIPTION, or DRAFTING, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service , most often a military service . Conscription dates back to antiquity and continues in some countries to the present day under various names. The modern system of near-universal national conscription for young men dates to the French Revolution
French Revolution
in the 1790s, where it became the basis of a very large and powerful military . Most European nations later copied the system in peacetime, so that men at a certain age would serve 1–8 years on active duty and then transfer to the reserve force
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Member Of Parliament
A MEMBER OF PARLIAMENT (MP) is the representative of the voters to a parliament . In many countries with bicameral parliaments, this category includes specifically members of the lower house, as upper houses often have a different title. Member of Congress
Congress
is an equivalent term in other jurisdictions. Members of parliament tend to form parliamentary groups (also called parliamentary parties) with members of the same political party
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Regiment
A REGIMENT is a military unit . Their role and size varies markedly, depending on the country and the arm of service. In Medieval Europe
Medieval Europe
, the term "regiment" denoted any large body of front-line soldiers, recruited or conscripted in one geographical area, by a leader who was often also the feudal lord of the soldiers. By the 17th century, a full-strength regiment was usually about a thousand personnel, and was usually commanded by a colonel
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Edward Montagu, 2nd Earl Of Manchester
EDWARD MONTAGU, 2ND EARL OF MANCHESTER, KG , KB , FRS (1602 – 5 May 1671) was an important commander of Parliamentary forces in the First English Civil War
English Civil War
, and for a time Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
's superior. CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Styles of address * 3 Cultural references * 4 Further reading * 5 References LIFEHe was the eldest son of Henry Montagu, 1st Earl of Manchester by his first wife, Catherine Spencer, granddaughter of Sir William Spencer of Yarnton , Oxfordshire
Oxfordshire
, England
England
, was born in 1602, and was educated at Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge
Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge
(1618–22). Montagu accompanied Prince Charles during his 1623 trip to Habsburg Spain in pursuit of the Spanish Match
Spanish Match

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Presbyterian
PRESBYTERIANISM is a part of the Reformed tradition within Protestantism
Protestantism
which traces its origins to the British Isles
British Isles
, particularly Scotland
Scotland
. Presbyterian churches derive their name from the presbyterian form of church government , which is governed by representative assemblies of elders . A great number of Reformed churches are organized this way, but the word Presbyterian, when capitalized, is often applied uniquely to churches that trace their roots to the Scottish and English Presbyterians, as well as several English dissenter groups that formed during the English Civil War
English Civil War
. Presbyterian theology typically emphasizes the sovereignty of God, the authority of the Scriptures , and the necessity of grace through faith in Christ
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English Dissenters
ENGLISH DISSENTERS or ENGLISH SEPARATISTS were Protestant
Protestant
Christians who separated from the Church of England
Church of England
in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries. A dissenter (from the Latin dissentire, “to disagree”) is one who disagrees in matters of opinion, belief, etc. English Dissenters opposed state interference in religious matters , and founded their own churches, educational establishments , and communities; some emigrated to the New World
New World
. They originally agitated for a wide-reaching Protestant
Protestant
Reformation of the Established Church , and triumphed briefly under Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
. King James VI of Scotland, I of England and Ireland had said "no bishop, no king"; Cromwell capitalised on that phrase, abolishing both upon founding the Commonwealth of England
Commonwealth of England

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William Lockhart Of Lee
SIR WILLIAM LOCKHART OF LEE (1621–1675), after fighting on the side of Charles I in the English Civil War , attached himself to Oliver Cromwell , whose niece he married, and who later appointed Lockhart commissioner for the administration of justice in Scotland in 1652. He was also the English ambassador at the French court in 1656, where he greatly distinguished himself by his successful diplomacy. He also served at the Battle of the Dunes . Sir William Lockhart of Lee CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Wars of the Three Kingdoms * 3 Diplomat * 4 Governor of Dunkirk * 5 Under Charles II * 6 Family * 7 Notes * 8 References * 9 Further reading EARLY LIFEHe was the eldest son of Sir James Lockhart of Lee (d. 1674), by his second wife, Martha, daughter of Sir George Douglas of Mordington, Berwickshire, and maid of honour to Queen Henrietta Maria . Sir George Lockhart (Lord Advocate) (c
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Soldier
A SOLDIER is one who fights as part of an organized, land-based, sea-based and air based armed-force. A soldier can be an enlisted person , a non-commissioned officer , or an officer in the army . CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Occupational designations * 3 Other terms * 4 Career soldiers and conscripts * 4.1 Women as soldiers * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links ETYMOLOGYThe word soldier derives from the Middle English
Middle English
word soudeour, from Old French
Old French
soudeer or soudeour, meaning mercenary, from soudee, meaning shilling's worth or wage, from sou or soud, shilling. The word is also related to the Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin
soldarius, meaning soldier (literally, "one having pay")
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