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New Model Army
The New Model Army
Army
of England was formed in 1645 by the Parliamentarians in the English Civil War, and was disbanded in 1660 after the Restoration. It differed from other armies in the series of civil wars referred to as the Wars of the Three Kingdoms
Wars of the Three Kingdoms
in that it was intended as an army liable for service anywhere in the country (including in Scotland
Scotland
and Ireland), rather than being tied to a single area or garrison. Its soldiers became full-time professionals, rather than part-time militia. To establish a professional officer corps, the army's leaders were prohibited from having seats in either the House of Lords
House of Lords
or House of Commons
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William Lockhart Of Lee
Sir William Lockhart of Lee
William Lockhart of Lee
(1621–1675), after fighting on the side of Charles I in the English Civil War, attached himself to Oliver Cromwell, whose niece he married, and who later appointed Lockhart commissioner for the administration of justice in Scotland in 1652. He was also the English ambassador at the French court in 1656, where he greatly distinguished himself by his successful diplomacy. He also served at the Battle of the Dunes.Sir William Lockhart of LeeContents1 Early life 2 Wars of the Three Kingdoms 3 Diplomat 4 Governor of Dunkirk 5 Under Charles II 6 Family 7 Notes 8 References 9 Further readingEarly life[edit] He was the eldest son of Sir James Lockhart of Lee (d. 1674), by his second wife, Martha, daughter of Sir George Douglas of Mordington, Berwickshire, and maid of honour to Queen Henrietta Maria. Sir George Lockhart (Lord Advocate) (c
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Member Of Parliament
A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the voters to a parliament. In many countries with bicameral parliaments, this category includes specifically members of the lower house, as upper houses often have a different title
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Edward Montagu, 2nd Earl Of Manchester
Edward Montagu, 2nd Earl of Manchester, KG, KB, FRS (1602 – 5 May 1671) was an important commander of Parliamentary forces in the First English Civil War, and for a time Oliver Cromwell's superior.[1]Contents1 Life 2 Styles of address 3 Cultural references 4 Further reading 5 ReferencesLife[edit] He was the eldest son of Henry Montagu, 1st Earl of Manchester
Henry Montagu, 1st Earl of Manchester
by his first wife, Catherine Spencer, granddaughter of Sir William Spencer of Yarnton, Oxfordshire, England, was born in 1602, and was educated at Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge
Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge
(1618–22).[2] Montagu accompanied Prince Charles during his 1623 trip to Habsburg Spain in pursuit of the Spanish Match. He was Member of Parliament for Huntingdonshire in the "Happy Parliament" of 1623–24, the "Useless Parliament" of 1625, and the Parliament of 1625–26
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Presbyterian
Presbyterianism
Presbyterianism
is a part of the Reformed tradition
Reformed tradition
within Protestantism
Protestantism
which traces its origins to the British Isles, particularly Scotland. Presbyterian churches derive their name from the presbyterian form of church government, which is governed by representative assemblies of elders. A great number of Reformed churches
Reformed churches
are organized this way, but the word Presbyterian, when capitalized, is often applied uniquely to churches that trace their roots to the Scottish and English Presbyterians, as well as several English dissenter groups that formed during the English Civil War.[2] Presbyterian theology typically emphasizes the sovereignty of God, the authority of the Scriptures, and the necessity of grace through faith in Christ
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English Dissenters
English Dissenters
English Dissenters
or English Separatists
Separatists
were Protestant
Protestant
Christians who separated from the Church of England
Church of England
in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries.[1] A dissenter (from the Latin dissentire, "to disagree") is one who disagrees in opinion, belief and other matters. English Dissenters opposed state interference in religious matters, founded their own churches, educational establishments,[2] and communities. Some emigrated to the New World, especially to the Thirteen Colonies
Thirteen Colonies
and Canada. Brownists founded the Plymouth colony. English dissenters played a pivotal role in spiritual development of the United States and greatly diversified the religious landscape
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Conscription
Military
Military
service National service Conscription
Conscription
crisis Conscientious objector Alternative civilian service Conscription
Conscription
by countryv t eConscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.[5] Conscription
Conscription
dates back to antiquity and continues in some countries to the present day under various names. The modern system of near-universal national conscription for young men dates to the French Revolution in the 1790s, where it became the basis of a very large and powerful military
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Puritans
The Puritans
Puritans
were English Reformed
Reformed
Protestants
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House Of Lords
The House of Lords
House of Lords
of the United Kingdom, also known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Like the House of Commons, it meets in the Palace of Westminster.[2] Officially, the full name of the house is the Right Honourable the Lords Spiritual
Lords Spiritual
and Temporal of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
in Parliament assembled. Unlike the elected House of Commons, all members of the House of Lords (excluding 90 hereditary peers elected among themselves and two peers who are ex officio members) are appointed.[3] The membership of the House of Lords
House of Lords
is drawn from the peerage and is made up of Lords Spiritual and Lords Temporal
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Military Reserve Force
A military reserve force is a military organisation composed of citizens of a country who combine a military role or career with a civilian career. They are not normally kept under arms and their main role is to be available to fight when a nation mobilises for total war or to defend against invasion. Reserve forces are generally not considered part of a permanent standing body of armed forces. The existence of reserve forces allows a nation to reduce its peacetime military expenditures while maintaining a force prepared for war. It is analogous to the historical model of military recruitment before the era of standing armies. In some countries, such as Canada, United States, Spain
Spain
and the United Kingdom, members of the reserve forces are civilians who maintain military skills by training, typically one weekend a month. They may do so as individuals or as members of standing reserve regiments, for example the Army Reserve of the United Kingdom
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Garrison
Garrison
Garrison
(various spellings) (from the French garnison, itself from the verb garnir, "to equip") is the collective term for a body of troops stationed in a particular location, originally to guard it, but now often simply using it as a home base. The garrison is usually in a city, town, fort, castle, ship or similar
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Ireland
Ireland
Ireland
(/ˈaɪərlənd/ ( listen); Irish: Éire [ˈeːɾʲə] ( listen); Ulster-Scots: Airlann [ˈɑːrlən]) is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain
Great Britain
to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, and St George's Channel. Ireland
Ireland
is the third-largest island in Europe. Politically, Ireland
Ireland
is divided between the Republic of Ireland (officially named Ireland), which covers five-sixths of the island, and Northern Ireland, which is part of the United Kingdom. In 2011, the population of Ireland
Ireland
was about 6.6 million, ranking it the second-most populous island in Europe
Europe
after Great Britain
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Scotland
Scotland
Scotland
(/ˈskɒtlənd/; Scots: [ˈskɔtlənd]; Scottish Gaelic: Alba
Alba
[ˈal̪ˠapə] ( listen)) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.[16][17][18] It shares a border with England
England
to the south, and is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea
North Sea
to the east and the North Channel and Irish Sea
Irish Sea
to the south-west. In addition to the mainland, the country is made up of more than 790 islands,[19] including the Northern Isles
Northern Isles
and the Hebrides. The Kingdom of Scotland
Kingdom of Scotland
emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages
Early Middle Ages
and continued to exist until 1707
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Anglo-Spanish War (1654–60)
King Philip IVCaribbean: Bernardino de Meneses Cristóbal Arnaldo IsasiSpain: Pablo Fernández de Contreras Marcos del Puerto Diego de EgüésFlanders: Willem Bette † Juan José de Austria Louis, Grand Condé Oliver Cromwell King Louis XIVCaribbean: William Penn Robert Venables Edward Doyley Christopher Myngs Henry MorganSpain: Robert Blake Richard StaynerFlanders: John Reynolds Thomas Morgan Vicomte de Turennev t eAnglo-Spanish War 1654–1660 Spain
Spain
and the Canary IslandsMala
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