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New Austrian Tunnelling Method
The NEW AUSTRIAN TUNNELING METHOD (NATM), also known as SEQUENTIAL EXCAVATION METHOD (SEM), is a method of modern tunnel design and construction. This technique first gained attention in the 1960s based on the work of Ladislaus von Rabcewicz
Ladislaus von Rabcewicz
, Leopold Müller , and Franz Pacher between 1957 and 1965 in Austria. The name NATM was intended to distinguish it from the old Austrian tunnelling approach. The fundamental difference between this new method of tunneling, as opposed to earlier methods, comes from the economic advantages made available by taking advantage of the inherent geological strength available in the surrounding rock mass to stabilize the tunnel . NATM/SEM is generally thought to have helped revolutionise the modern tunneling industry. Many modern tunnels have used this excavation technique
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Formation (stratigraphy)
A FORMATION or GEOLOGICAL FORMATION is the fundamental unit of lithostratigraphy . A formation consists of a certain number of rock strata that have a comparable lithology , facies or other similar properties. Formations are not defined by the thickness of the rock strata they consist of and the thickness of different formations can therefore vary widely. The concept of formally defined layers or strata is central to the geologic discipline of stratigraphy . Formations can be divided into members and are themselves frequently parcelled together in groups . CONTENTS * 1 Usefulness of formations * 2 Defining lithostratigraphic formations * 3 Other uses of the term * 4 See also * 5 Further reading USEFULNESS OF FORMATIONSThe definition and recognition of formations allow geologists to correlate geologic strata across wide distances between outcrops and exposures of rock strata
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Design
DESIGN is the creation of a plan or convention for the construction of an object, system or measurable human interaction (as in architectural blueprints , engineering drawings , business processes , circuit diagrams , and sewing patterns ). Design
Design
has different connotations in different fields (see design disciplines below). In some cases, the direct construction of an object (as in pottery , engineering , management , coding , and graphic design ) is also considered to use design thinking. Designing often necessitates considering the aesthetic , functional , economic, and sociopolitical dimensions of both the design object and design process. It may involve considerable research , thought , modeling , interactive adjustment , and re-design. Meanwhile, diverse kinds of objects may be designed, including clothing , graphical user interfaces , products, skyscrapers , corporate identities , business processes , and even methods or processes of designing
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Construction
CONSTRUCTION is the process of constructing a building or infrastructure . Construction
Construction
differs from manufacturing in that manufacturing typically involves mass production of similar items without a designated purchaser, while construction typically takes place on location for a known client. Construction
Construction
as an industry comprises six to nine percent of the gross domestic product of developed countries . Construction
Construction
starts with planning, design, and financing; and continues until the project is built and ready for use. Large-scale construction requires collaboration across multiple disciplines. An architect normally manages the job, and a construction manager , design engineer , construction engineer or project manager supervises it
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Strength Of Materials
STRENGTH OF MATERIALS, also called MECHANICS OF MATERIALS, is a subject which deals with the behavior of solid objects subject to stresses and strains . The complete theory began with the consideration of the behavior of one and two dimensional members of structures, whose states of stress can be approximated as two dimensional, and was then generalized to three dimensions to develop a more complete theory of the elastic and plastic behavior of materials. An important founding pioneer in mechanics of materials was Stephen Timoshenko . The study of strength of materials often refers to various methods of calculating the stresses and strains in structural members, such as beams, columns, and shafts
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Diaphragm (mechanics)
In mechanics , a DIAPHRAGM is a sheet of a semi-flexible material anchored at its periphery and most often round in shape. It serves either as a barrier between two chambers, moving slightly up into one chamber or down into the other depending on differences in pressure , or as a device that vibrates when certain frequencies are applied to it. A diaphragm pump uses a diaphragm to pump a fluid . A typical design is to have air on one side constantly vary in pressure, with fluid on the other side. The increase and decrease in volume caused by the action of the diaphragm alternately forces fluid out the chamber and draws more fluid in from its source. The action of the diaphragm is very similar to the action of a plunger with the exception that a diaphragm responds to changes in pressure rather than the mechanical force of the shaft. Pressure
Pressure
regulators use diaphragms as part of their design
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Technical Term
JARGON is a type of language that is used in a particular context and may not be well understood outside the language. The context is usually a particular occupation (that is, a certain trade, profession, or academic field), but any ingroup can have jargon. The main trait that distinguishes jargon from the rest of a language is special vocabulary—including some words specific to it, and often narrower senses of words that outgroups would tend to take in a broader sense. Jargon is thus "the technical terminology or characteristic idiom of a special activity or group". Most jargon is TECHNICAL TERMINOLOGY, involving TERMS OF ART or INDUSTRY TERMS, with particular meaning within a specific industry. A main driving force in the creation of technical jargon is precision and efficiency of communication when a discussion must easily range from general themes to specific, finely differentiated details without circumlocution
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Screw
A SCREW is a type of fastener , sometimes similar to a bolt (see Differentiation between bolt and screw below), typically made of metal, and characterized by a helical ridge, known as a male thread (external thread) or just thread
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Tool
A TOOL is any physical item that can be used to achieve a goal , especially if the item is not consumed in the process. Tools that are used in particular fields or activities may have different designations such as "instrument", "utensil", "implement", "machine", "device," or "apparatus". The set of tools needed to achieve a goal is "equipment". The knowledge of constructing, obtaining and using tools is technology . Some animals are known to employ simple tools . The use of stone tools by humans dates back millions of years. More advanced tools, such as the bow and arrow began to be developed approximately 10000 years ago. The use of tools contributes to human culture and was key to the rise of civilization
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Sediment
SEDIMENT is a naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of weathering and erosion , and is subsequently transported by the action of wind, water, or ice, and/or by the force of gravity acting on the particles. For example, sand and silt can be carried in suspension in river water and on reaching the sea be deposited by sedimentation and if buried this may eventually become sandstone and siltstone , ( sedimentary rocks ). Sediments are most often transported by water (fluvial processes ), but also wind (aeolian processes ) and glaciers . Beach sands and river channel deposits are examples of fluvial transport and deposition , though sediment also often settles out of slow-moving or standing water in lakes and oceans. Desert sand dunes and loess are examples of aeolian transport and deposition. Glacial
Glacial
moraine deposits and till are ice-transported sediments
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Structural Load
STRUCTURAL LOADS or ACTIONS are forces , deformations , or accelerations applied to a structure or its components . Loads cause stresses , deformations , and displacements in structures. Assessment of their effects is carried out by the methods of structural analysis . Excess load or overloading may cause structural failure , and hence such possibility should be either considered in the design or strictly controlled. Mechanical structures, such as aircraft , satellites , rockets , space stations , ships , and submarines , have their own particular structural loads and actions. Engineers often evaluate structural loads based upon published regulations , contracts , or specifications . Accepted technical standards are used for acceptance testing and inspection
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Instrumentation
INSTRUMENTATION is a collective term for measuring instruments used for indicating, measuring and recording physical quantities, and has its origins in the art and science of Scientific instrument-making . The term INSTRUMENTATION may refer to something as simple as direct reading thermometers or, when using many sensors, may become part of a complex Industrial control system
Industrial control system
in such as manufacturing industry, vehicles and transportation. Instrumentation
Instrumentation
can be found in the household as well; a smoke detector or a heating thermostat are examples
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Easton, Pennsylvania
EASTON is a city in and the county seat of Northampton County, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
, United States. The city's population was 26,800 as of the 2010 census. Easton is located at the confluence of the Delaware River and the Lehigh River , roughly 55 miles (89 km) north of Philadelphia
Philadelphia
and 70 miles (110 km) west of New York City
City
. Easton is the easternmost city in the Lehigh Valley , a region of 731 square miles (1,893 km2) that is home to more than 800,000 people. Together with Allentown and Bethlehem , the Valley embraces the Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton metropolitan area , including Lehigh , Northampton, and Carbon counties within Pennsylvania, and Warren County in the adjacent state of New Jersey
New Jersey

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National Diet Library
The NATIONAL DIET LIBRARY (NDL) (国立国会図書館, Kokuritsu Kokkai Toshokan) is the only national library in Japan
Japan
. It was established in 1948 for the purpose of assisting members of the National Diet of Japan
Japan
(国会, Kokkai) in researching matters of public policy. The library is similar in purpose and scope to the United States Library of Congress
Library of Congress

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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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