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New Austrian Tunnelling Method
The New Austrian tunneling method (NATM), also known as sequential excavation method (SEM), is a method of modern tunnel design and construction. This technique first gained attention in the 1960s based on the work of Ladislaus von Rabcewicz, Leopold Müller, and Franz Pacher between 1957 and 1965 in Austria. The name NATM was intended to distinguish it from the old Austrian tunnelling approach. The fundamental difference between this new method of tunneling, as opposed to earlier methods, comes from the economic advantages made available by taking advantage of the inherent geological strength available in the surrounding rock mass to stabilize the tunnel .[1] NATM/SEM is generally thought to have helped revolutionise the modern tunneling industry
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Wire
A wire is a single, usually cylindrical, flexible strand or rod of metal. Wires are used to bear mechanical loads or electricity and telecommunications signals. Wire
Wire
is commonly formed by drawing the metal through a hole in a die or draw plate. Wire
Wire
gauges come in various standard sizes, as expressed in terms of a gauge number. The term wire is also used more loosely to refer to a bundle of such strands, as in "multistranded wire", which is more correctly termed a wire rope in mechanics, or a cable in electricity. Wire
Wire
comes in solid core, stranded, or braided forms. Although usually circular in cross-section, wire can be made in square, hexagonal, flattened rectangular, or other cross-sections, either for decorative purposes, or for technical purposes such as high-efficiency voice coils in loudspeakers
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Construction
Construction
Construction
is the process of constructing a building or infrastructure.[1] Construction
Construction
differs from manufacturing in that manufacturing typically involves mass production of similar items without a designated purchaser, while construction typically takes place on location for a known client.[2] Construction
Construction
as an industry comprises six to nine percent of the gross domestic product of developed countries.[3] Construction
Construction
starts with planning, design, and financing; it continues until the project is built and ready for use. Large-scale construction requires collaboration across multiple disciplines. A project manager normally manages the job, and a construction manager, design engineer, construction engineer or architect supervises it
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Tool
A tool is any physical item that can be used to achieve a goal, especially if the item is not consumed in the process. Tools that are used in particular fields or activities may have different designations such as "instrument", "utensil", "implement", "machine", "device," or "apparatus". The set of tools needed to achieve a goal is "equipment". The knowledge of constructing, obtaining and using tools is technology. Some animals are known to employ simple tools. The use of stone tools by humans dates back millions of years
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Sediment
Sediment
Sediment
is a naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of weathering and erosion, and is subsequently transported by the action of wind, water, or ice, and/or by the force of gravity acting on the particles. For example, sand and silt can be carried in suspension in river water and on reaching the sea be deposited by sedimentation and if buried, may eventually become sandstone and siltstone (sedimentary rocks). Sediments are most often transported by water (fluvial processes), but also wind (aeolian processes) and glaciers. Beach sands and river channel deposits are examples of fluvial transport and deposition, though sediment also often settles out of slow-moving or standing water in lakes and oceans. Desert sand dunes and loess are examples of aeolian transport and deposition
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Technical Term
Jargon is a type of language that is used in a particular context and may not be well understood outside that context. The context is usually a particular occupation (that is, a certain trade, profession, or academic field), but any ingroup; or social group to which a person psychologically identifies as being a member, can have jargon. The main trait that distinguishes jargon from the rest of a language is special vocabulary—including some words specific to it, and often different senses or meanings of words, that outgroups would tend to take in another sense; —therefore misunderstanding that communication attempt. Jargon is thus "the technical terminology or characteristic idiom of a special activity or group".[1] Most jargon is technical terminology,[2] involving terms of art[2] or industry terms, with particular meaning within a specific industry
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Diaphragm (mechanics)
In mechanics, a diaphragm is a sheet of a semi-flexible material anchored at its periphery and most often round in shape. It serves either as a barrier between two chambers, moving slightly up into one chamber or down into the other depending on differences in pressure, or as a device that vibrates when certain frequencies are applied to it.[1] A diaphragm pump uses a diaphragm to pump a fluid. A typical design is to have air on one side constantly vary in pressure, with fluid on the other side. The increase and decrease in volume caused by the action of the diaphragm alternately forces fluid out the chamber and draws more fluid in from its source. The action of the diaphragm is very similar to the action of a plunger with the exception that a diaphragm responds to changes in pressure rather than the mechanical force of the shaft. Pressure
Pressure
regulators use diaphragms as part of their design
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Formation (stratigraphy)
A formation or geological formation is the fundamental unit of lithostratigraphy. A formation consists of a certain amount of rock strata that have a comparable lithology, facies or other similar properties. Formations are not defined by the thickness of their rock strata; therefore the thickness of different formations can vary widely. The concept of formally defined layers or strata is central to the geologic discipline of stratigraphy. Groups of strata are divided into formations, which are divided into members.Contents1 Usefulness of formations 2 Defining lithostratigraphic formations 3 Other uses of the term 4 See also 5 Further readingUsefulness of formations[edit] The definition and recognition of formations allow geologists to correlate geologic strata across wide distances between outcrops and exposures of rock strata. Formations were at first described as the essential geologic time markers, based on their relative ages and the law of superposition
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Design
Design
Design
is the creation of a plan or convention for the construction of an object, system or measurable human interaction (as in architectural blueprints, engineering drawings, business processes, circuit diagrams, and sewing patterns).[1] Design
Design
has different connotations in different fields (see design disciplines below). In some cases, the direct construction of an object (as in pottery, engineering, management, coding, and graphic design) is also considered to use design thinking. Designing often necessitates considering the aesthetic, functional, economic, and sociopolitical dimensions of both the design object and design process. It may involve considerable research, thought, modeling, interactive adjustment, and re-design
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Strength Of Materials
Strength of materials, also called mechanics of materials, is a subject which deals with the behavior of solid objects subject to stresses and strains. The complete theory began with the consideration of the behavior of one and two dimensional members of structures, whose states of stress can be approximated as two dimensional, and was then generalized to three dimensions to develop a more complete theory of the elastic and plastic behavior of materials. An important founding pioneer in mechanics of materials was Stephen Timoshenko. The study of strength of materials often refers to various methods of calculating the stresses and strains in structural members, such as beams, columns, and shafts
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Easton, Pennsylvania
Easton is a city in and the county seat of Northampton County, Pennsylvania, United States.[3] The city's population was 26,800 as of the 2010 census.[4] Easton is located at the confluence of the Delaware River
Delaware River
and the Lehigh River, roughly 55 miles (89 km) north of Philadelphia
Philadelphia
and 70 miles (110 km) west of New York City. Easton is the easternmost city in the Lehigh Valley, a region of 731 square miles (1,893 km2) that is home to more than 800,000 people. Together with Allentown and Bethlehem, the Valley embraces the Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton metropolitan area, including Lehigh, Northampton, and Carbon counties within Pennsylvania, and Warren County in the adjacent state of New Jersey
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Structural Load
Structural loads or actions are forces, deformations, or accelerations applied to a structure or its components.[1][2] Loads cause stresses, deformations, and displacements in structures. Assessment of their effects is carried out by the methods of structural analysis. Excess load or overloading may cause structural failure, and hence such possibility should be either considered in the design or strictly controlled. Mechanical structures, such as aircraft, satellites, rockets, space stations, ships, and submarines, have their own particular structural loads and actions.[3] Engineers often evaluate structural loads based upon published regulations, contracts, or specifications
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Instrumentation
Instrumentation
Instrumentation
is a collective term for measuring instruments used for indicating, measuring and recording physical quantities, and has its origins in the art and science of scientific instrument-making. The term instrumentation may refer to a device or group of devices used for direct reading thermometers or, when using many sensors, may become part of a complex industrial control system in such as manufacturing industry, vehicles and transportation
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Spiling
Spiling
Spiling
is a traditional technique used in temperate regions of the world for the prevention of erosion to river and stream banks. Willow
Willow
spiling is currently used in the United Kingdom; live willow rods are woven between live willow uprights and the area behind is filled with soil for the willow to root into.[1] Kipling's poem The Land mentions it: "They spiled along the water-course with trunks of willow-trees, And planks of elms behind 'em and immortal oaken knees."[2] The species of willow used are riparian (associated with rivers); the posts, 10 centimetres (4 in) in diameter, are usually Salix alba or S. fragilis, and S. viminalis varieties are used for the interwoven rods
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Heathrow Airport
Heathrow Airport
Heathrow Airport
(also known as London
London
Heathrow)[2] (IATA: LHR, ICAO: EGLL) is a major international airport in London, United Kingdom. Heathrow is the second busiest airport in the world by international passenger traffic (surpassed by Dubai International in 2014), as well as the busiest airport in Europe by passenger traffic, and the seventh busiest airport in the world by total passenger traffic
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Geotechnical Engineering
Geotechnical engineering
Geotechnical engineering
is the branch of civil engineering concerned with the engineering behavior of earth materials. Geotechnical engineering is important in civil engineering, but also has applications in military, mining, petroleum and other engineering disciplines that are concerned with construction occurring on the surface or within the ground
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