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Network Effect
A network effect (also called network externality or demand-side economies of scale) is the positive effect described in economics and business that an additional user of a good or service has on the value of that product to others. When a network effect is present, the value of a product or service increases according to the number of others using it.[1] The classic example is the telephone, where a greater number of users increases the value to each. A positive externality is created when a telephone is purchased without its owner intending to create value for other users, but does so regardless
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Economics
Economics
Economics
(/ɛkəˈnɒmɪks, iːkə-/)[1][2][3] is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.[4] Economics
Economics
focuses on the behaviour and interactions of economic agents and how economies work. Microeconomics
Microeconomics
analyzes basic elements in the economy, including individual agents and markets, their interactions, and the outcomes of interactions. Individual agents may include, for example, households, firms, buyers, and sellers. Macroeconomics analyzes the entire economy (meaning aggregated production, consumption, savings, and investment) and issues affecting it, including unemployment of resources (labour, capital, and land), inflation, economic growth, and the public policies that address these issues (monetary, fiscal, and other policies)
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Economies Of Scope
Economies of scope are "efficiencies formed by variety, not volume" (the latter concept is "economies of scale").[1] For example, many corporate diversification plans assume that economies of scope will be achieved.[2]Contents1 Economics1.1 Natural monopolies 1.2 Advantages2 Examples 3 See also 4 ReferencesEconomics[edit] The term and the concept's development are attributed to economists John C. Panzar and Robert D
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Business
Business
Business
is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling goods or services.[1][2][3][4] Simply put, it is any activity or enterprise entered into for profit. It does not mean it is a company, a corporation, partnership, or have any such formal organization, but it can range from a street peddler to General Motors.[5] The term is also often used colloquially (but not by lawyers or public officials) to refer to a company, but this article will not deal with that sense of the word.Anyone carrying on an activity that earns them a profit is doing business or running a business, and perhaps this is why there is a misconception that business and company is the same thing. A business name structure does not separate the business entity from the owner, which means that the owner of the business is responsible and liable for all debts incurred by the business
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Customer Support
Customer support is a range of customer services to assist customers in making cost effective and correct use of a product. It includes assistance in planning, installation, training, troubleshooting, maintenance, upgrading, and disposal of a product.[1] Regarding technology products such as mobile phones, televisions, computers, software products or other electronic or mechanical goods, it is termed technical support.[1] Customer support is considered as one of the main data channels for customer satisfaction research and a way to increase customer retention. In more and more companies, especially in the technology field, the responsibility for customer support is placed within the Customer Success team, especially if the Customer Success team has a C-level executive leading it[2]Contents1 Automation1.1 Types2 Communication Channels 3 See also 4 ReferencesAutomation[edit]This section does not cite any sources
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Peer-to-peer
Peer-to-peer
Peer-to-peer
(P2P) computing or networking is a distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or workloads between peers. Peers are equally privileged, equipotent participants in the application. They are said to form a peer-to-peer network of nodes. Peers make a portion of their resources, such as processing power, disk storage or network bandwidth, directly available to other network participants, without the need for central coordination by servers or stable hosts.[1] Peers are both suppliers and consumers of resources, in contrast to the traditional client-server model in which the consumption and supply of resources is divided
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Skype
mobile applicationsGroupMe Skype
Skype
Qikv t e Skype
Skype
(/skaɪp/) is a telecommunications application software product that specializes in providing video chat and voice calls between computers, tablets, mobile devices, the Xbox One
Xbox One
console, and smartwatches via the Internet
Internet
and to regular telephones.[9] Skype additionally provides instant messaging services. Users may transmit both text and video messages, and may exchange digital documents such as images, text, and video. Skype
Skype
allows video conference calls. Skype
Skype
implements a freemium business model. Much of the service is free, but Skype
Skype
Credit or a subscription is required to call a landline or a mobile phone number
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Market Saturation
In economics, market saturation is a situation in which a product has become diffused (distributed) within a market;[1] the actual level of saturation can depend on consumer purchasing power; as well as competition, prices, and technology.Contents1 Theory of natural limits1.1 Example2 "Flooding the market"2.1 Example3 ReferencesTheory of natural limits[edit] The theory of natural limits states: "Every product or service has a natural consumption level. We just don't know what it is until we launch it, distribute it, and promote it for a generation's time (20 years or more) after which further investment to expand the universe beyond normal limits can be a futile exercise." —Thomas G
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Demand
In economics, demand is the quantity of a commodity or a service that people are willing or able to buy at a certain price, per unit of time.[1] The relationship between price and quantity demanded is also known as demand curve. Preferences and choices, which underlie demand, can be represented as functions of cost, benefit, odds and other variables. Determinants of (Factors affecting) demand Innumerable factors and circumstances could affect a buyer's willingness or ability to buy a good. Some of the common factors are:Good's own price: The basic demand relationship is between potential prices of a good and the quantities that would be purchased at those prices. Generally the relationship is negative meaning that an increase in price will induce a decrease in the quantity demanded. This negative relationship is embodied in the downward slope of the consumer demand curve. The assumption of a negative relationship is reasonable and intuitive
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Supply Side
Supply-side economics
Supply-side economics
is a macroeconomic theory that argues economic growth can be most effectively created by lowering taxes and decreasing regulation.[1][2] According to supply-side economics, consumers will then benefit from a greater supply of goods and services at lower prices and employment will increase.[3] It was started by economist Robert Mundell
Robert Mundell
during the Ronald Reagan administration. The Laffer curve
Laffer curve
is one of the main theoretical constructs of supply-side economics, the idea that lower tax rates when tax level is too high will actually boost government revenue because of higher economic growth.[4] The term "supply-side economics" was thought for some time to have been coined by journalist Jude Wanniski in 1975, but according to Robert D. Atkinson
Robert D

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Economic Production
Production is a process of combining various material inputs and immaterial inputs (plans, know-how) in order to make something for consumption (the output). It is the act of creating output, a good or service which has value and contributes to the utility of individuals.[1] Economic well-being is created in a production process, meaning all economic activities that aim directly or indirectly to satisfy human wants and needs. The degree to which the needs are satisfied is often accepted as a measure of economic well-being. In production there are two features which explain increasing economic well-being. They are improving quality-price-ratio of goods and services and increasing incomes from growing and more efficient market production. The most important forms of production are:market production public production household productionIn order to understand the origin of the economic well-being, we must understand these three production processes
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System Dynamics
System
System
dynamics (SD) is an approach to understanding the nonlinear behaviour of complex systems over time using stocks, flows, internal feedback loops, table functions and time delays.[1]Contents1 Overview 2 History 3 Topics in systems dynamics3.1 Causal loop diagrams 3.2 Stock and flow
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Load (computing)
In UNIX
UNIX
computing, the system load is a measure of the amount of computational work that a computer system performs. The load average represents the average system load over a period of time. It conventionally appears in the form of three numbers which represent the system load during the last one-, five-, and fifteen-minute periods. Contents1 Unix-style load calculation 2 CPU load vs CPU utilization 3 Reckoning CPU load 4 Other system performance commands 5 See also 6 External links 7 Notes 8 ReferencesUnix-style load calculation[edit] All Unix and Unix-like systems generate a dimensionless metric of three "load average" numbers in the kernel
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Word-of-mouth Marketing
Word-of-mouth marketing (WOMM, WOM marketing), also called word of mouth advertising, differs from naturally occurring word of mouth, in that it is actively influenced or encouraged by organizations (e.g. 'seeding' a message in a networks rewarding regular consumers to engage in WOM, employing WOM 'agents'). While it is difficult to truly control WOM, research[1] has shown that there are three generic avenues to 'manage' WOM for the purpose of WOMM: 1.) Build a strong WOM foundation (e.g. sufficient levels of satisfaction, trust and commitment), 2.) Indirect WOMM management which implies that managers only have a moderate amount of control (e.g. controversial advertising, teaser campaigns, customer membership clubs), 3.) Direct WOMM management, which has higher levels of control (e.g. paid WOM 'agents', "friend get friend" schemes)
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Bass Model
The Bass Model or Bass Diffusion Model was developed by Frank Bass. It consists of a simple differential equation that describes the process of how new products get adopted in a population. The model presents a rationale of how current adopters and potential adopters of a new product interact. The basic premise of the model is that adopters can be classified as innovators or as imitators and the speed and timing of adoption depends on their degree of innovativeness and the degree of imitation among adopters. The Bass model has been widely used in forecasting, especially new products' sales forecasting and technology forecasting. Mathematically, the basic Bass diffusion is a Riccati equation with constant coefficients. In 1969, Frank Bass published his paper on a new product growth model for consumer durables.[1]:1833[2] Prior to this, Everett Rogers published Diffusion of Innovations, a highly influential work that described the different stages of product adoption
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Intellectual Property
Intellectual property
Intellectual property
(or "IP") is a category of property that includes intangible creations of the human intellect, and primarily encompasses copyrights, patents, and trademarks. It also includes other types of rights, such as trade secrets, publicity rights, moral rights, and rights against unfair competition. Artistic works like music and literature, as well as some discoveries, inventions, words, phrases, symbols, and designs can all be protected as intellectual property.[1][2] Intellectual property
Intellectual property
law has evolved over centuries. It was not until the 19th century that the term "intellectual property" began to be used, and not until the late 20th century that it became commonplace in the majority of the world.[3] The main purpose of intellectual property law is to encourage the creation of a large variety of intellectual goods
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