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Nesvizh Castle
NIASVIž CASTLE or NESVIZH CASTLE (Belarusian : Нясвіжскі замак, Niasvižski zamak, Lithuanian : Nesvyžiaus pilis, Polish : zamek w Nieświeżu, Russian : Несвижский замок, Nesvizhskiy zamok) is a residential castle of the Radziwiłł
Radziwiłł
family in Niasviž , Belarus
Belarus
. It is 183 metres (600 ft) above sea level. From 1921 to 1939 the complex was in Poland
Poland
and was considered one of the most beautiful Polish castles in the Kresy
Kresy
region
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Trąby Coat Of Arms
Amfor, Amforowicz, Anforowicz. B Baraniecki, Bendziński, Będziński, Bilman, Birżański, Błeszyński, Błędowski, Bolesławski, Brzezieński, Brzeziński. C Chaszajdarowicz, Chaszajewicz, Chleb, Chłopski, Chodzieński, Chwalczewski, Chwaleczewski, Chwaliszewski, Ciarnowski, Ciążyński, Ciborowski, Ciecicza, Cielica, Cieszeyko, Ciszkiewicz, Czarnowski, Czaszawski, Czaszyński, Czaśnicki. D Dadziwiłłowicz, Dadziwiłowicz, Dawidowicz, Dewicz, Dobek, Dobiński, Dobkiewicz, Dogel, Dogiel, Doliński, Dołuski, Dołuszycki, Dowgielt, Dowgiełt, Dowiakowski, Drombiński, Dumiński, Dusiacki, Dusiatski, Dusiątski, Dyaczkowski, Dzieczkowski, Dziewałtowski, Dzimitrowicz. F Falczewski
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Corpus Christi Church, Nesvizh
The CORPUS CHRISTI CHURCH in Nesvizh , Belarus is an early Jesuit church and one of the oldest baroque structures outside Italy, influencing the later architecture of Belarus , Poland and Lithuania . Commissioned by nobleman Prince Nicholas Radziwill and constructed in 1587-1593 by Gian Maria Bernardoni , it contains graves of members of the powerful house of Radziwiłł . SEE ALSO * Catholic Church in Belarus REFERENCES * ^ A B Andrzej Piotrowski, Architecture of Thought
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Gian Maria Bernardoni
GIOVANNI MARIA BERNARDONI (1541–1605) was a Jesuit monk and an Italian architect who was the first to design the Baroque style in Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania . CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Architectural work * 2.1 Italy * 2.2 Poland * 2.3 Nesvizh * 2.4 Krakow * 3 Notable buildings * 4 References * 5 Further reading EARLY LIFEGiovanni Maria Bernardoni was born in northern Italy in the commune of Cagno in 1541. He worked as a mason until he was 23 years old upon which he left for Rome to join the Order of the Jesuits and become an architect. The Order directed him towards the construction of their main church in Rome, the Church of the Gesù , where he worked for 6 years. The construction was under the supervision of the famous Italian architect and the inspector of the Order's construction projects, John Tristan
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Jesuit
The SOCIETY OF JESUS (S.J. – from Latin
Latin
: Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
which originated in sixteenth-century Spain
Spain
. The members are called JESUITS. The society is engaged in evangelization and apostolic ministry in 112 nations on six continents. Jesuits work in education (founding schools, colleges, universities, and seminaries), intellectual research, and cultural pursuits. Jesuits also give retreats, minister in hospitals and parishes, sponsor direct social ministries , and promote ecumenical dialogue . Ignatius of Loyola , a Basque nobleman from the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
area of northern Spain, founded the society after discerning his spiritual vocation while recovering from a wound sustained in the Battle of Pamplona
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Il Gesù
The CHURCH OF THE GESù (Italian : Chiesa del Gesù; Italian pronunciation: ) is the mother church of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits), a Catholic religious order . Officially named Chiesa del Santissimo Nome di Gesù all'Argentina (English: Church of the Most Holy Name of Jesus at the "Argentina"), its facade is "the first truly baroque façade", introducing the baroque style into architecture. The church served as model for innumerable Jesuit churches all over the world, especially in the Americas . The Church of the Gesù is located in the Piazza del Gesù in Rome
Rome
. First conceived in 1551 by Saint Ignatius of Loyola , the founder of the Jesuits Society of Jesus , and active during the Protestant Reformation and the subsequent Catholic Counter-Reformation , the Gesù was also the home of the Superior General of the Society of Jesus until the suppression of the order in 1773
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Stucco
STUCCO or RENDER is a material made of aggregates , a binder , and water. Stucco
Stucco
is applied wet and hardens to a very dense solid. It is used as decorative coating for walls and ceilings and as a sculptural and artistic material in architecture. Stucco
Stucco
may be used to cover less visually appealing construction materials such as metal , concrete , cinder block , or clay brick and adobe . In English, stucco usually means a coating for the outside of a building, and plaster one for interiors; as described below, the material itself is often little different. But other European languages, importantly including Italian, do not have the same distinction; stucco means plaster in Italian and serves for both. This has led to English often using "stucco" for interior decorative plasterwork in relief , especially in art history and older sources
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Charles XII Of Sweden
CHARLES XII, also CARL (Swedish : Karl XII; 17 June 1682 – 30 November 1718 O.S. ), Latinized to Carolus Rex, was the King of Sweden from 1697 to 1718. He belonged to the House of Palatinate- Zweibrücken , a branch line of the House of Wittelsbach . Charles was the only surviving son of Charles XI and Ulrika Eleonora the Elder . He assumed power, after a seven-month caretaker government , at the age of fifteen. In 1700, a triple alliance of Denmark–Norway , Saxony –Poland– Lithuania and Russia launched a threefold attack on the Swedish protectorate of Swedish Holstein-Gottorp and provinces of Livonia and Ingria , aiming to draw advantage as Sweden was unaligned and ruled by a young and inexperienced king, thus initiating the Great Northern War
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Castellan
A CASTELLAN was the governor or captain of a castellany and its castle . The word stems from the Latin Castellanus, derived from castellum "castle". Sometimes also known as a CONSTABLE, GOVERNOR of the castle district or CAPTAIN, the Constable of the Tower of London is, in fact, a form of castellan. A castellan was almost always male, but could occasionally be female, as when, in 1194, Beatrice inherited her father's castellany of Bourbourg upon the death of her brother, Roger. CONTENTS * 1 Initial power * 2 Duties * 2.1 Castellans and Jews * 3 Regional differences * 3.1 France * 3.2 Germany * 3.3 Hungary * 3.4 Jerusalem * 3.5 Malta * 3.6 Poland * 3.7 Portugal * 4 Castellany * 5 See also * 6 References INITIAL POWERAfter the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
, many tribes migrated into western Europe , causing strife and war
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Šiauliai
ŠIAULIAI ( ( listen )) is the fourth largest city in Lithuania
Lithuania
, with a population of 133,900. From 1994 to 2010 it was the capital of Šiauliai County . Unofficially, the city is the capital of Northern Lithuania
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Château
A CHâTEAU (plural châteaux; French pronunciation: ​ in both cases) is a manor house or residence of the lord of the manor or a country house of nobility or gentry , with or without fortifications, originally—and still most frequently—in French -speaking regions. CONTENTS * 1 Definition * 2 Concept * 3 French châteaux * 3.1 Loire Valley * 3.2 Vaux-le-Vicomte * 3.3 Chateau de Chenonceau * 3.4 Dampierre-en-Yvelines * 3.5 Versailles * 3.6 Bordeaux
Bordeaux
* 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links DEFINITIONThe word "chateau" is a French word that has entered the English language, where its meaning is more specific than it is in French. The French word "chateau" denotes buildings as diverse as a medieval fortress, a Renaissance palace and a 19th-century country house
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Great Northern War
Coalition victory: * Tsardom of Russia
Russia
establishes itself as a new power in Europe . * Decline of the Swedish Empire and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth . Territorial changes TREATY OF NYSTAD : Russia
Russia
gains the three dominions Estonia
Estonia
, Livonia
Livonia
and Ingria as well as parts of Kexholm and Viborg . TREATIES OF STOCKHOLM : Prussia gains parts of Swedish Pomerania . Hanover gains Bremen-Verden . TREATY OF FREDERIKSBORG : Holstein–Gottorp loses its part of the Duchy of Schleswig
Duchy of Schleswig
to Denmark. TREATY OF THE PRUTH : Azov and area is ceded back to the Ottoman Empire
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Basilica
The Latin
Latin
word BASILICA (derived from the Greek βασιλικὴ στοά (basilikè stoá), lit. "royal stoa ", serving as the tribunal chamber of a king) has three distinct applications in modern English. The word was originally used to describe an ancient Roman public building where courts were held, as well as serving other official and public functions. To a large extent these were the town halls of ancient Roman life. The basilica was centrally located in every Roman town, usually adjacent to the main forum . These buildings, an example of which is the Basilica Ulpia , were rectangular, and often had a central nave and aisles , usually with a slightly raised platform and an apse at each of the two ends, adorned with a statue perhaps of the emperor, while the entrances were from the long sides
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Baroque
The BAROQUE (US : /bəˈroʊk/ or UK : /bəˈrɒk/ ) is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, art and music that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the late 18th century. It followed the Renaissance style and preceded the Neoclassical style . It was encouraged by the Roman Catholic Church as a means to counter the simplicity and austerity of Protestant architecture, art and music. The baroque style used contrast, movement, exuberant detail, grandeur and surprise to achieve a sense of awe. The style began in the first third of the 17th century in Rome, then spread rapidly to northern Italy, Spain and Portugal, then to Austria and southern Germany. By the 1740s, it had evolved into an even more flamboyant variant, called Rococo , which appeared in central Europe until the late 18th century
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Red Army
The WORKERS\' AND PEASANTS\' RED ARMY (Russian : Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия; РККА, or Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya: RKKA, frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия; KA, in English: RED ARMY also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic , and after 1922 the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics . The army was established immediately after the 1917 October Revolution
October Revolution
(Red October or Bolshevik Revolution)
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Invasion Of Poland
Decisive German and Soviet victory * Beginning of World War II Territorial changes Polish territory divided among Germany, the Soviet Union, Lithuania and Slovakia
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