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Nerva
18 September 96 – 27 January 98 (15 months)Predecessor DomitianSuccessor TrajanBorn (30-11-08)8 November 30 Narni, ItalyDied 27 January 98(98-01-27) (aged 67) Gardens of Sallust, RomeBurial Mausoleum of Augustus, RomeIssue Trajan
Trajan
(adoptive)Full nameMarcus Cocceius Nerva (before accession); Imperator Marcus Cocceius Nerva
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Roman-Germanic Museum
The Roman-Germanic Museum (RGM, in German: Römisch-Germanisches Museum) is an archaeological museum in Cologne, Germany. It has a large collection of Roman artifacts from the Roman settlement of Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium, on which modern Cologne
Cologne
is built. The museum protects the original site of a Roman town villa, from which a large Dionysus
Dionysus
mosaic remains in its original place in the basement, and the related Roman Road
Roman Road
just outside
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Asia (Roman Province)
The Roman province
Roman province
of Asia or Asiana (Greek: Ἀσία or Ἀσιανή), in Byzantine times called Phrygia, was an administrative unit added to the late Republic. It was a Senatorial province governed by a proconsul. The arrangement was unchanged in the reorganization of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in 211.Contents1 Background 2 Geography 3 Annexation 4 Taxation 5 Mithridates and Sulla 6 Military presence 7 Augustus 8 Emperor worship 9 Decline 10 See also 11 References 12 External linksBackground[edit] The word "Asia" comes from the Greek word, Ἀσία, originally only applied to the eastern shore of the Aegean Sea,[1] known to the Lydians
Lydians
who occupied it as Assuwa. It came to be used by the Greeks for all of Lydia
Lydia
(the northwestern part of what is today Turkey), that shore being the closest part of Lydia
Lydia
to Greece
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Historian
A historian is a person who studies and writes about the past, and his regarded as an authority on it.[1] Historians are concerned with the continuous, methodical narrative and research of past events as relating to the human race; as well as the study of all history in time. If the individual is concerned with events preceding written history, the individual is a historian of prehistory. Although "historian" can be used to describe amateur and professional historians alike, it is reserved more recently for those who have acquired graduate degrees in the discipline
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Apotheosis
Apotheosis
Apotheosis
(from Greek ἀποθέωσις from ἀποθεοῦν, apotheoun "to deify"; in Latin
Latin
deificatio "making divine"; also called divinization and deification) is the glorification of a subject to divine level. The term has meanings in theology, where it refers to a belief, and in art, where it refers to a genre. In theology, apotheosis refers to the idea that an individual has been raised to godlike stature
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Adoption In Ancient Rome
In ancient Rome, adoption of boys was a fairly common procedure, particularly in the upper senatorial class. The need for a male heir and the expense of raising children and the Roman inheritance rules (Lex Falcidia) strictly demanding legitimes were strong incentives to have at least one son, but not too many children. Adoption, the obvious solution, also served to cement ties between families, thus fostering and reinforcing alliances. Adoption
Adoption
of girls, however, was much less common. In the Imperial period, the system also acted as a mechanism for ensuring a smooth succession, the emperor taking his chosen successor as his adopted son.Contents1 Causes 2 Practice 3 Imperial succession 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksCauses[edit] As Rome was ruled by a select number of powerful families, every senator's duty was to produce sons to inherit the estate, family name and political tradition. However, a large family was an expensive luxury
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Roman Army
The Roman army
Roman army
(Latin: exercitus Romanus) is a term that can in general be applied to the terrestrial armed forces deployed by the Romans throughout the duration of Ancient Rome, from the Roman Kingdom (to c. 500 BC) to the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
(500–31 BC) and the Roman Empire (31 BC – 395/476 AD), and its successor the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire. It is thus a term that may span approximately 2,206 years (753 BC to 1453 AD), during which the Roman armed forces underwent numerous permutations in composition, organisation, equipment and tactics, while conserving a core of lasting traditions.[1][2][3]Contents1 Historical overview1.1 Early Roman army
Early Roman army
(c. 500 BC to c. 300 BC) 1.2 Roman army of the mid-Republic
Roman army of the mid-Republic
(c
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Roman Senate
The Roman Senate
Senate
(Latin: Senatus Romanus; Italian: Senato Romano) was a political institution in ancient Rome. It was one of the most enduring institutions in Roman history, being established in the first days of the city (traditionally founded in 753 BC). It survived the overthrow of the kings in 509 BC, the fall of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
in the 1st century BC, the division of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in 395 AD, the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in 476 AD, and the barbarian rule of Rome
Rome
in the 5th, 6th, and 7th centuries. During the days of the kingdom, it was little more than an advisory council to the king
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Freedman
A freedman or freedwoman is a former slave who has been released from slavery, usually by legal means. Historically, slaves were freed either by manumission (granted freedom by their owner) or emancipation (granted freedom as part of a larger group). A fugitive slave is one who escaped slavery by fleeing.Contents1 Ancient Rome 2 Arabian and North African slavery 3 United States3.1 Cherokee Freedmen4 See also 5 References 6 External linksAncient Rome[edit] Main article: Slavery
Slavery
in ancient RomeCinerary urn for the freedman Tiberius Claudius
Claudius
Chryseros and two women, probably his wife and daughterRome differed from Greek city-states
Greek city-states
in allowing freed slaves to become plebeian citizens.[1] The act of freeing a slave was called manumissio, from manus, "hand" (in the sense of holding or possessing something), and missio, the act of releasing
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Roman Consul
A consul held the highest elected political office of the Roman Republic (509 to 27 BC), and ancient Romans considered the consulship the highest level of the cursus honorum (an ascending sequence of public offices to which politicians aspired). Each year, the citizens of Rome
Rome
elected two consuls to serve jointly for a one-year term. The consuls alternated in holding imperium each month, and a consul's imperium extended over Rome, Italy, and the provinces
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Pisonian Conspiracy
The conspiracy of Gaius Calpurnius Piso in AD 65 was a major turning point in the reign of the Roman emperor
Roman emperor
Nero
Nero
(reign 54–68). The plot reflected the growing discontent among the ruling class of the Roman state with Nero's increasingly despotic leadership, and as a result is a significant event on the road towards his eventual suicide and the chaos of the Year of Four Emperors
Year of Four Emperors
which followed.Contents1 Plot 2 Named conspirators2.1 Executed or forced to commit suicide 2.2 Exiled or denigrated 2.3 Pardoned or acquitted3 Modern fiction 4 ReferencesPlot[edit] Gaius Calpurnius Piso, a leading Roman statesman, benefactor of literature, and orator, intended to have Nero
Nero
assassinated, and replace him as Emperor through acclamation by the Praetorian Guard
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Roman Republic
The Roman Republic
Republic
(Latin: Res publica Romana; Classical Latin: [ˈreːs ˈpuːb.lɪ.ka roːˈmaː.na]) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire. It was during this period that Rome's control expanded from the city's immediate surroundings to hegemony over the entire Mediterranean
Mediterranean
world. Roman government was headed by two consuls, elected annually by the citizens and advised by a senate composed of appointed magistrates. As Roman society was very hierarchical by modern standards, the evolution of the Roman government was heavily influenced by the struggle between the patricians, Rome's land-holding aristocracy, who traced their ancestry to the founding of Rome, and the plebeians, the far more numerous citizen-commoners
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Latin Language
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Suffect Consul
A consul held the highest elected political office of the Roman Republic (509 to 27 BC), and ancient Romans considered the consulship the highest level of the cursus honorum (an ascending sequence of public offices to which politicians aspired). Each year, the citizens of Rome elected two consuls to serve jointly for a one-year term. The consuls alternated in holding imperium each month, and a consul's imperium extended over Rome, Italy, and the provinces
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Roman Triumph
The Roman triumph
Roman triumph
(triumphus) was a civil ceremony and religious rite of ancient Rome, held to publicly celebrate and sanctify the success of a military commander who had led Roman forces to victory in the service of the state or, originally and traditionally, one who had successfully completed a foreign war. On the day of his triumph, the general wore a crown of laurel and the all-purple, gold-embroidered triumphal toga picta ("painted" toga), regalia that identified him as near-divine or near-kingly, and even was known to paint his face red. He rode in a four-horse chariot through the streets of Rome in unarmed procession with his army, captives, and the spoils of his war. At Jupiter's temple on the Capitoline Hill, he offered sacrifice and the tokens of his victory to the god
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Cursus Honorum
The cursus honorum (Latin: "course of offices") was the sequential order of public offices held by aspiring politicians in both the Roman Republic
Republic
and the early Roman Empire. It was designed for men of senatorial rank. The cursus honorum comprised a mixture of military and political administration posts. Each office had a minimum age for election. There were minimum intervals between holding successive offices and laws forbade repeating an office.[citation needed] These rules were altered and flagrantly ignored in the course of the last century of the Republic. For example, Gaius Marius
Gaius Marius
held consulships for five years in a row between 104 BC and 100 BC. He held consulship a total of seven times, also serving 86, and 107 BC. Officially presented as opportunities for public service, the offices often became mere opportunities for self-aggrandizement
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