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Nepotianus
JULIUS NEPOTIANUS (died June 30, 350), sometimes known in English as NEPOTIAN, was a member of the Constantinian dynasty who reigned as a short-lived usurper of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. He ruled the city of Rome for twenty-eight days, before being killed by his rival usurper Magnentius
Magnentius
' general Marcellinus . CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Events * 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 References BACKGROUND Nepotianus
Nepotianus
was the son of Eutropia , half-sister of Emperor Constantine I
Constantine I
, and of Virius Nepotianus . On his mother's side, he was the grandson of Emperor Constantius Chlorus
Constantius Chlorus
and Flavia Maximiana Theodora
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Eutropius (historian)
FLAVIUS EUTROPIUS was an Ancient Roman
Ancient Roman
historian who flourished in the latter half of the 4th century AD. He held the office of secretary (magister memoriae) at Constantinople
Constantinople
, accompanied the Emperor Julian (361–363) on his expedition against the Persians (363), and was alive during the reign of Valens (364–378), to whom he dedicates his Breviarium historiae Romanae and where his history ends. Possibly he held higher state offices in later years, becoming Praetorian prefect for Illyria in 380 and - together with emperor Valentinian II
Valentinian II
- consul in 387. However, it is a question of academic discussion whether the Eutropius holding these offices is really to be identified with the historian
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Magister Officiorum
The MAGISTER OFFICIORUM (Latin literally for "Master of Offices", in Greek : μάγιστρος τῶν ὀφφικίων, magistros tōn offikiōn) was one of the most senior administrative officials in the late Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and the early centuries of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
. In Byzantium, the office was eventually transformed into a senior honorary rank, until it disappeared in the 12th century. CONTENTS* 1 History and functions * 1.1 Late Roman Empire
Roman Empire
* 1.2 Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
* 2 References * 3 Sources HISTORY AND FUNCTIONSLATE ROMAN EMPIREAlthough some scholars have supported its creation under Emperor Diocletian
Diocletian
(r
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Praefectus Urbi
The PRAEFECTUS URBANUS, also called PRAEFECTUS URBI or URBAN PREFECT in English, was prefect of the city of Rome, and later also of Constantinople
Constantinople
. The office originated under the Roman kings , continued during the Republic and Empire, and held high importance in late Antiquity . The office survived the collapse of the Western Roman Empire , and the last urban prefect of Rome, named Iohannes, is attested in 599. In the East, in Constantinople, the office survived until the 13th century. CONTENTS * 1 Kingly period * 2 Republican period * 3 Imperial period * 3.1 Rome
Rome
* 3.2 Constantinople
Constantinople
* 4 References * 5 Bibliography KINGLY PERIODIn 753 BC when Romulus founded the city of Rome
Rome
and instituted the monarchy , he also created the office of CUSTOS URBIS (guardian of the city) to serve as the king’s chief lieutenant
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Gladiator
A GLADIATOR (Latin : gladiator, "swordsman", from gladius , "sword") was an armed combatant who entertained audiences in the Roman Republic and Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in violent confrontations with other gladiators, wild animals, and condemned criminals. Some gladiators were volunteers who risked their lives and their legal and social standing by appearing in the arena. Most were despised as slaves, schooled under harsh conditions, socially marginalized, and segregated even in death. Irrespective of their origin, gladiators offered spectators an example of Rome's martial ethics and, in fighting or dying well, they could inspire admiration and popular acclaim. They were celebrated in high and low art, and their value as entertainers was commemorated in precious and commonplace objects throughout the Roman world. The origin of gladiatorial combat is open to debate
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Roman Senator
The ROMAN SENATE ( Latin
Latin
: Senatus Romanus; Italian : Senato Romano) was a political institution in ancient Rome
Rome
. It was one of the most enduring institutions in Roman history, being established in the first days of the city (traditionally founded in 753 BC). It survived the overthrow of the kings in 509 BC, the fall of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
in the 1st century BC, the division of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in 395 AD, the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in 476 AD, and the barbarian rule of Rome
Rome
in the 5th, 6th, and 7th centuries. During the days of the kingdom, it was little more than an advisory council to the king. The last king of Rome
Rome
, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus , was overthrown following a coup d\'état led by Lucius Junius Brutus , who founded the Republic
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List Of Roman Emperors
ROMAN EMPERORS were rulers of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
, wielding power over its citizens and military. The empire was developed as the Roman Republic invaded and occupied most of Europe and portions of northern Africa and western Asia. Under the republic, regions of the empire were ruled by provincial governors answerable to and authorised by the "Senate and People of Rome
Rome
". Rome
Rome
and its senate were ruled by a variety of magistrates – of whom the consuls were the most powerful. The republic ended, and the emperors were created, when these magistrates became legally and practically subservient to one citizen with power over all other magistrates
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Zosimus
ZOSIMUS (Greek : Ζώσιμος ; also known by the Latin
Latin
name ZOSIMUS HISTORICUS, i.e. " Zosimus the Historian"; fl. 490s–510s) was a Greek historian who lived in Constantinople
Constantinople
during the reign of the Eastern Roman Emperor
Eastern Roman Emperor
Anastasius I (491–518). According to Photius , he was a comes , and held the office of "advocate" of the imperial treasury. CONTENTS * 1 Historia Nova * 2 Editions * 3 References * 4 External links HISTORIA NOVAZosimus' Historia Nova (Ἱστορία Νέα, "New History") is written in Greek in six books. For the period from 238 to 270, he apparently uses Dexippus ; for the period from 270 to 404, Eunapius ; and after 407, Olympiodorus
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Aurelius Victor
SEXTUS AURELIUS VICTOR (c. 320 – c. 390) was a historian and politician of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. Aurelius Victor was the author of a short history of imperial Rome, entitled De Caesaribus and covering the period from Augustus
Augustus
to Constantius II
Constantius II
. The work was published in 361. Under the emperor Julian (361-363), Victor served as governor of Pannonia Secunda
Pannonia Secunda
, in 389 he became praefectus urbi (urban prefect), senior imperial official in Rome
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Roman Emperor
The ROMAN EMPEROR was the ruler of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles throughout history. Often when a given Roman is described as becoming "emperor" in English, it reflects his taking of the title Augustus
Augustus
or Caesar . Another title often used was imperator , originally a military honorific. Early Emperors also used the title princeps (first citizen). Emperors frequently amassed republican titles, notably Princeps Senatus , Consul and Pontifex Maximus . The legitimacy of an emperor's rule depended on his control of the army and recognition by the Senate ; an emperor would normally be proclaimed by his troops, or invested with imperial titles by the Senate, or both
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Constantine I
CONSTANTINE THE GREAT (Latin : Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus; Greek : Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Μέγας; 27 February c. 272 AD – 22 May 337 AD), also known as CONSTANTINE I or SAINT CONSTANTINE (in the Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
as SAINT CONSTANTINE THE GREAT, EQUAL-TO-THE-APOSTLES), was a Roman Emperor
Roman Emperor
of Illyrian origin from 306 to 337 AD. Constantine was the son of Flavius Valerius Constantius , a Roman Army
Roman Army
officer, and his consort Helena . His father became Caesar , the deputy emperor in the west, in 293 AD. Constantine was sent east, where he rose through the ranks to become a military tribune under the emperors Diocletian
Diocletian
and Galerius
Galerius

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Augustus (honorific)
AUGUSTUS (plural AUGUSTI), /ɔːˈɡʌstəs/ ; Classical Latin: , Latin for "majestic," "the increaser," or "venerable"), was an ancient Roman title given as both name and title to Gaius Octavius (often referred to simply as Augustus), Rome's first Emperor . On his death, it became an official title of his successor, and was so used by Roman emperors thereafter. The feminine form AUGUSTA was used for Roman empresses and other females of the Imperial family. The masculine and feminine forms originated in the time of the Roman Republic , in connection with things considered divine or sacred in traditional Roman religion . Their use as titles for major and minor Roman deities of the Empire associated the Imperial system and Imperial family with traditional Roman virtues and the divine will, and may be considered a feature of the Roman Imperial cult
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Dynasty
A DYNASTY (UK : /ˈdɪnəsti/ , US : /ˈdaɪnəsti/ ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family, usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes also appearing in elective republics . The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "house ", which may be styled as "royal ", "princely ", "ducal ", "comital ", etc., depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of many sovereign states , such as Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt
, the Carolingian Empire and Imperial China , using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe events, trends, and artifacts of that period ("a Ming-dynasty vase"). The word "dynasty" itself is often dropped from such adjectival references ("a Ming vase ")
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Roman Empire
Mediolanum (286–402, Western ) Augusta Treverorum
Augusta Treverorum
Sirmium
Sirmium

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English Language
ENGLISH is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now the third most widespread native language in the world, after Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
and Spanish , as well as the most widely spoken Germanic language . Named after the Angles
Angles
, one of the Germanic tribes that migrated to Great Britain
Great Britain
, it ultimately derives its name from the Anglia (Angeln) peninsula in the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
. It is closely related to the other West Germanic languages
Germanic languages
of Frisian , Low German/Low Saxon , German , Dutch , and Afrikaans
Afrikaans
. The English vocabulary has been significantly influenced by French (a Romance language ), Norse (a North Germanic language ), and by Latin
Latin

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