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Neman River
The NEMAN, NEMUNAS, NYOMAN, NIEMEN or MEMEL, a major Eastern European river , rises in Belarus
Belarus
and flows through Lithuania
Lithuania
before draining into the Curonian Lagoon
Curonian Lagoon
, and then into the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
at Klaipėda
Klaipėda
. It begins at the confluence of two smaller tributaries (map coordinates 53.348194,27.108377), about 15 kilometers (9 mi) southwest of the town of Uzda in central Belarus, and about 55 km (34 mi) southwest of Minsk
Minsk
. In its lower reaches it forms the border between Lithuania
Lithuania
and Russia
Russia
's Kaliningrad Oblast
Kaliningrad Oblast
. It also, very briefly, forms part of the Belarus– Lithuania
Lithuania
border
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Rivulet
A STREAM is a body of water with a current , confined within a bed and banks . Depending on its location or certain characteristics, a stream may be referred to by a variety of local or regional names. Streams are important as conduits in the water cycle , instruments in groundwater recharge , and corridors for fish and wildlife migration. The biological habitat in the immediate vicinity of a stream is called a riparian zone . Given the status of the ongoing Holocene extinction , streams play an important corridor role in connecting fragmented habitats and thus in conserving biodiversity . The study of streams and waterways in general is known as surface hydrology and is a core element of environmental geography
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Neolithic
farming , animal husbandry pottery , metallurgy , wheel circular ditches , henges , megaliths Neolithic religion Chalcolithic
Chalcolithic
The NEOLITHIC /ˌniːəˈlɪθᵻk/ ( listen ) AGE, ERA, or PERIOD, or NEW STONE AGE, was a period in the development of human technology , beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology , in some parts of the Middle East, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC. Traditionally considered the last part of the Stone Age
Stone Age
, the Neolithic
Neolithic
followed the terminal Holocene
Holocene
Epipaleolithic
Epipaleolithic
period and commenced with the beginning of farming , which produced the " Neolithic Revolution "
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German Language
No official regulation ( German orthography regulated by the Council for German Orthography )
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Tributaries
A TRIBUTARY or AFFLUENT is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem (or parent) river or a lake . A tributary does not flow directly into a sea or ocean. Tributaries and the main stem river drain the surrounding drainage basin of its surface water and groundwater , leading the water out into an ocean. A confluence , where two or more bodies of water meet together, usually refers to the joining of tributaries. The opposite to a tributary is a distributary , a river or stream that branches off from and flows away from the main stream. Distributaries are most often found in river deltas . CONTENTS * 1 Terminology * 2 Ordering and enumeration * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links TERMINOLOGY The Pfinz
Pfinz
, a right tributary of the Rhine
Rhine
, located in Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg

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Last Glacial Period
The LAST GLACIAL PERIOD, popularly known as the ICE AGE, was the most recent glacial period , which occurred from c.  110,000 – c. 11,700 years ago. This most recent glacial period is part of a larger pattern of glacial and interglacial periods known as the Quaternary glaciation (c. 2,588,000 years ago to present). From this point of view, scientists consider this "ice age " to be merely the latest glaciation event in a much larger ice age, one that dates back over two million years and is still ongoing. During this last glacial period, there were several changes between glacier advance and retreat. The Last Glacial Maximum , the maximum extent of glaciation within the last glacial period, was approximately 22,000 years ago
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Glacial
A GLACIAL PERIOD (alternatively GLACIAL or GLACIATION) is an interval of time (thousands of years) within an ice age that is marked by colder temperatures and glacier advances. Interglacials , on the other hand, are periods of warmer climate between glacial periods. The last glacial period ended about 15,000 years ago. The Holocene epoch is the current interglacial. A time when there are no glaciers on Earth is considered a greenhouse climate state . Look up GLACIATION in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.CONTENTS * 1 Quaternary ice age * 2 Last glacial period * 3 Next glacial period * 4 See also * 5 References QUATERNARY ICE AGE Main articles: Quaternary glaciation and timeline of glaciation Glacial and interglacial cycles as represented by atmospheric CO2 , measured from ice core samples going back 800,000 years. The stage names are part of the North American and the European Alpine subdivisions
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Druskininkai
DRUSKININKAI ( ( listen ), Polish : Druskieniki, Belarusian : Друскенiкi, Yiddish : דרוזגעניק‎ Druzgenik) is a spa town on the Nemunas River in southern Lithuania
Lithuania
, close to the borders of Belarus
Belarus
and Poland
Poland
. The city of Druskininkai
Druskininkai
has a population of 23136 (2015 Census
Census
) and dates back as a spa resort to the 19th century. CONTENTS * 1 Geography * 2 History * 3 Culture * 4 International relations * 4.1 Twin towns – Sister cities * 5 People * 6 References * 7 External links GEOGRAPHY Druskonis lake, City museum and a tower of the church. The town is located at the Ratnyčia River
River
estuary to the Nemunas River
River
and is surrounded by a natural forest reserve
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Kaliningrad Oblast
KALININGRAD OBLAST (Russian : Калинингра́дская о́бласть, Kaliningradskaya oblast) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
that is located on the coast of the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
. As an oblast , its constitutional status is equal to each of the other 84 federal subjects. Its administrative center is the city of Kaliningrad , formerly known as Königsberg
Königsberg
. It is the only Baltic port in the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
that remains ice-free in winter. According to the 2010 census , it had a population of 941,873. The oblast is an exclave so visa-free travel to the main part of Russia
Russia
is only possible by sea or air. The territory was formerly part of East Prussia
East Prussia

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State Of The Teutonic Order
The STATE OF THE TEUTONIC ORDER (German : Staat des Deutschen Ordens; Latin : Civitas Ordinis Theutonici), also called DEUTSCHORDENSSTAAT (pronounced ) or ORDENSSTAAT (pronounced ) in German, was a crusader state formed by the Teutonic Knights
Teutonic Knights
or Teutonic Order
Teutonic Order
during the 13th century Northern Crusades along the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
. The state was based in Prussia
Prussia
after the Order\'s conquest of the Pagan Old Prussians which began in 1230. It expanded to include at various times Courland
Courland
, Gotland
Gotland
, Livonia
Livonia
, Neumark , Pomerelia and Samogitia
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Czar
TSAR /zɑːr/ or /tsɑːr/ ( Old Church Slavonic : ц︢рь or цар, цaрь), also spelled TZAR, CSAR, or CZAR, is a title used to designate certain Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers. As a system of government in the Tsardom of Russia
Tsardom of Russia
and the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
, it is known as Tsarist autocracy , or Tsarism. The term is derived from the Latin
Latin
word Caesar , which was intended to mean " Emperor
Emperor
" in the European medieval sense of the term—a ruler with the same rank as a Roman emperor, holding it by the approval of another emperor or a supreme ecclesiastical official (the Pope
Pope
or the Ecumenical Patriarch )—but was usually considered by western Europeans to be equivalent to king, or to be somewhat in between a royal and imperial rank
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Weimar Republic
WEIMAR REPUBLIC (German : Weimarer Republik ( listen )) was an unofficial, historical designation for the German state between 1919 and 1933. The name derives from the city of Weimar
Weimar
, where its constitutional assembly first took place. The official name of the state was Deutsches Reich
Deutsches Reich
; it had remained unchanged since 1871. In English the country was usually known simply as Germany. A national assembly was convened in Weimar, where a new constitution for the Deutsches Reich
Deutsches Reich
was written, and adopted on 11 August 1919. In its fourteen years, the Weimar
Weimar
Republic faced numerous problems, including hyperinflation , political extremism (with paramilitaries – both left- and right-wing); and contentious relationships with the victors of the First World War
First World War

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Deutschlandlied
The "DEUTSCHLANDLIED" (English: "Song of Germany", German pronunciation: ; also known as "DAS LIED DER DEUTSCHEN" or "The Song of the Germans"), or part of it, has been the national anthem of Germany
Germany
since 1922, except in East Germany
Germany
, whose anthem was " Auferstanden aus Ruinen " ("Risen from Ruins") from 1949 to 1990. Since World War II
World War II
and the fall of Nazi Germany
Germany
, only the third stanza has been used as the national anthem. The stanza's beginning, "Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit" ("Unity and Justice and Freedom") is considered the unofficial national motto of Germany, and is inscribed on modern German Army belt buckles and the rims of some German coins
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National Anthem
A NATIONAL ANTHEM (also STATE ANTHEM, NATIONAL HYMN, NATIONAL SONG, etc. like Jana Gana Mana) is generally a patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nation's government as the official national song , or by convention through use by the people. The majority of national anthems are marches or hymns in style. The countries of Latin America , Central Asia , and Europe tend towards more ornate and operatic pieces, while those in the Middle East , Oceania , Africa , and the Caribbean use a more simplistic fanfare
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East Prussia
EAST PRUSSIA (German : Ostpreußen, pronounced ( listen ); Polish : Prusy Wschodnie; Lithuanian : Rytų Prūsija; Latin : Borussia orientalis; Russian : Восточная Пруссия) was a province of Prussia
Prussia
from 1773 to 1829 and from 1878 to 1945. Its capital city was Königsberg
Königsberg
(present-day Kaliningrad ). East Prussia was the main part of the region of Prussia
Prussia
along the southeastern Baltic Coast . East Prussia
Prussia
enclosed the bulk of the ancestral lands of the Baltic Old Prussians . During the 13th century, the native Prussians were conquered by the crusading Teutonic Knights
Teutonic Knights

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Treaty Of Versailles
The TREATY OF VERSAILLES (French : Traité de Versailles) was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I
World War I
to an end. The Treaty ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers . It was signed on 28 June 1919 in Versailles
Versailles
, exactly five years after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand . The other Central Powers on the German side of World War I
World War I
signed separate treaties. Although the armistice , signed on 11 November 1918, ended the actual fighting, it took six months of Allied negotiations at the Paris Peace Conference to conclude the peace treaty. The treaty was registered by the Secretariat of the League of Nations on 21 October 1919
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