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Navy
A navy or maritime force is the branch of a nation's armed forces principally designated for naval and amphibious warfare; namely, lake-borne, riverine, littoral, or ocean-borne combat operations and related functions. It includes anything conducted by surface ships, amphibious ships, submarines, and seaborne aviation, as well as ancillary support, communications, training, and other fields. The strategic offensive role of a navy is projection of force into areas beyond a country's shores (for example, to protect sea-lanes, ferry troops, or attack other navies, ports, or shore installations). The strategic defensive purpose of a navy is to frustrate seaborne projection-of-force by enemies. The strategic task of the navy also may incorporate nuclear deterrence by use of submarine-launched ballistic missiles
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Old French
Old French
Old French
(franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French: ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France
France
from the 8th century to the 14th century. In the 14th century, these dialects came to be collectively known as the langue d'oïl, contrasting with the langue d'oc or Occitan language
Occitan language
in the south of France
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Fossil Word
A fossil word is a word that is broadly obsolete but remains in current use due to its presence within an idiom.[1][2] Fossil status can also occur for word senses and for phrases. An example for a word sense is 'navy' in 'merchant navy', which means 'commercial fleet' (although that sense of navy is obsolete elsewhere). An example for a phrase is 'in point' (relevant), which is retained in the larger phrases 'case in point' (also 'case on point' in the legal context) and 'in point of fact', but is rarely used outside of a legal context.Contents1 English-language examples1.1 "Born fossils"2 See also 3 ReferencesEnglish-language examples[edit]This article may contain indiscriminate, excessive, or irrelevant examples. Please improve the article by adding more descriptive text and removing less pertinent examples
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Cf.
The abbreviation cf. (short for the Latin: confer/conferatur, both meaning "compare")[1] is used in writing to refer the reader to other material to make a comparison with the topic being discussed. It is used to form a contrast, for example: "Abbott (2010) found supportive results in her memory experiment, unlike those of previous work (cf. Zeller & Williams, 2007)."[2] It is recommended that cf. be used only to suggest a comparison, and the word see be used to point to a source of information.[3][4]Contents1 Biological use 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksBiological use[edit] In biological naming conventions, cf. is commonly placed between the genus name and the species name to describe a specimen that is hard to identify because of practical difficulties, such as poor preservation. For example, " Barbus
Barbus
cf
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Greek Language
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά elliniká) is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus
Cyprus
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning more than 3000 years of written records.[3] Its writing system has been the
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Combat
Combat
Combat
(French for fight) is a purposeful violent conflict meant to weaken, establish dominance over, or kill the opposition, or to drive the opposition away from a location where it is not wanted or needed. Combat
Combat
is typically between opposing military forces in warfare. Combat
Combat
violence can be unilateral, whereas fighting implies at least a defensive reaction. A large-scale fight is known as a battle. A verbal fight is commonly known as an argument. Combat
Combat
effectiveness, in the strategic field, requires combat readiness
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Ocean
An ocean (from Ancient Greek Ὠκεανός, transc. Okeanós, the sea of classical antiquity[1]) is a body of saline water that composes much of a planet's hydrosphere.[2] On Earth, an ocean is one of the major conventional divisions of the World
World
Ocean
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Mycenaean Greek
Mycenaean Greek
Mycenaean Greek
is the most ancient attested form of the Greek language, on the Greek mainland, Crete
Crete
and Cyprus
Cyprus
in Mycenaean Greece (16th to 12th centuries BC), before the hypothesised Dorian invasion, often cited as the terminus post quem for the coming of the Greek language to Greece. The language is preserved in inscriptions in Linear B, a script first attested on Crete
Crete
before the 14th century. Most inscriptions are on clay tablets found in Knossos, in central Crete, as well as in Pylos, in the southwest of the Peloponnese
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River
A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without reaching another body of water. Small rivers can be referred to using names such as stream, creek, brook, rivulet, and rill. There are no official definitions for the generic term river as applied to geographic features,[1] although in some countries or communities a stream is defined by its size. Many names for small rivers are specific to geographic location; examples are "run" in some parts of the United States, "burn" in Scotland and northeast England, and "beck" in northern England. Sometimes a river is defined as being larger than a creek,[2] but not always: the language is vague.[3] Rivers are part of the hydrological cycle
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Lake
A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, that is surrounded by land, apart from any river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain the lake.[1] Lakes lie on land and are not part of the ocean, and therefore are distinct from lagoons, and are also larger and deeper than ponds, though there are no official or scientific definitions.[2] Lakes can be contrasted with rivers or streams, which are usually flowing. Most lakes are fed and drained by rivers and streams. Natural lakes are generally found in mountainous areas, rift zones, and areas with ongoing glaciation. Other lakes are found in endorheic basins or along the courses of mature rivers. In some parts of the world there are many lakes because of chaotic drainage patterns left over from the last Ice Age
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Word Sense
In linguistics, a word sense is one of the meanings of a word (some words have multiple meanings, some words have only one meaning). For example, a dictionary may have over 50 different senses of the word "play", each of these having a different meaning based on the context of the word's usage in a sentence, as follows:We went to see the play Romeo and Juliet at the theater.The coach devised a great play that put the visiting team on the defensive.The children went out to play in the park.In each sentence we associate a different meaning of the word "play" based on hints the rest of the sentence gives us. People and computers, as they read words, must use a process called word-sense disambiguation[1][2] to find the correct meaning of a word. This process uses context to narrow the possible senses down to the probable ones
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Nuclear Deterrence
Deterrence theory
Deterrence theory
gained increased prominence as a military strategy during the Cold War
War
with regard to the use of nuclear weapons. It took on a unique connotation during this time as an inferior nuclear force, by virtue of its extreme destructive power, could deter a more powerful adversary, provided that this force could be protected against destruction by a surprise attack. Deterrence is a strategy intended to dissuade an adversary from taking an action not yet started, or to prevent them from doing something that another state desires. A credible nuclear deterrent, Bernard Brodie wrote in 1959, must be always at the ready, yet never used.[1][a] In Thomas Schelling's (1966) classic work on deterrence, the concept that military strategy can no longer be defined as the science of military victory is presented
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Dual-use Technology
-European Commission, Trade Topics, Dual UseIn politics and diplomacy, dual-use is technology that can be used for both peaceful and military aims. More generally speaking, dual-use can also refer to any technology which can satisfy more than one goal at any given time. Thus, expensive technologies which would otherwise only benefit civilian commercial interests can also be used to serve military purposes when not otherwise engaged such as the Global Positioning System.Contents1 Missile 2 Nuclear 3 Chemical 4 Biological 5 Night Vision & Thermal Imaging 6 Other technologies 7 Control 8 See also 9 References 10 External linksMissile[edit] Originally developed as weapons during the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
spent billions of dollars developing rocket technology which could carry humans into space (and even eventually to the moon)
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Arabian Sea
The Arabian Sea, also known as Sea
Sea
of Oman, is a region of the northern Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
bounded on the north by Pakistan
Pakistan
and Iran, on the west by northeastern Somalia
Somalia
and the Arabian Peninsula, and on the east by India. Historically the sea has been known by other names including the Erythraean Sea
Sea
and the Persian Sea. Its total area is 3,862,000 km2 (1,491,000 sq mi) and its maximum depth is 4,652 metres (15,262 ft)
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Flag Of Convenience
Flag of convenience
Flag of convenience
(FOC) is a business practice whereby a ship's owners register a merchant ship in a ship register of a country other than that of the ship's owners, and the ship flies the civil ensign of that country, called the flag state.[2] The term is often used pejoratively, and the practice is regarded as contentious. Each merchant ship is required by international law to be registered in a registry created by a country,[3] and a ship is subject to the laws of that country, which are used also if the ship is involved in a case under admiralty law. A ship's owners may elect to register a ship in a foreign country which enables it to avoid the regulations of the owners’ country which may, for example, have stricter safety standards. They may also select a jurisdiction to reduce operating costs, bypassing laws that protect the wages and working conditions of mariners.[4] The term "flag of convenience" has been used since the 1950s
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Supply Chain
A supply chain is a system of organizations, people, activities, information, and resources involved in moving a product or service from supplier to customer. Supply chain
Supply chain
activities involve the transformation of natural resources, raw materials, and components into a finished product that is delivered to the end customer.[2] In sophisticated supply chain systems, used products may re-enter the supply chain at any point where residual value is recyclable
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