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Navarre
NAVARRE (English: /nəˈvɑːr/ ; Spanish : Navarra, Basque : Nafarroa; officially the CHARTERED COMMUNITY OF NAVARRE Spanish : Comunidad Foral de Navarra ; (Basque : Nafarroako Foru Komunitatea ; is an autonomous community and province in northern Spain , bordering the Basque Autonomous Community , La Rioja , and Aragon in Spain and Nouvelle-Aquitaine in France . The capital city is Pamplona (or Iruñea in Basque )
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English Language
ENGLISH is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now the third most widespread native language in the world, after Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
and Spanish , as well as the most widely spoken Germanic language . Named after the Angles
Angles
, one of the Germanic tribes that migrated to Great Britain
Great Britain
, it ultimately derives its name from the Anglia (Angeln) peninsula in the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
. It is closely related to the other West Germanic languages
Germanic languages
of Frisian , Low German/Low Saxon , German , Dutch , and Afrikaans
Afrikaans
. The English vocabulary has been significantly influenced by French (a Romance language ), Norse (a North Germanic language ), and by Latin
Latin

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Spanish Language
The SPANISH LANGUAGE (/ˈspænɪʃ/ ( listen ); Español (help ·info )), also called the CASTILIAN LANGUAGE (/kæˈstɪliən/ ( listen ), castellano (help ·info )), is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain
Spain
and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers around the world. It is usually considered the world\'s second-most spoken native language , after Mandarin Chinese
Mandarin Chinese
. Spanish is a part of the Ibero-Romance group of languages , which evolved from several dialects of Vulgar Latin in Iberia after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
in the 5th century
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Demonym
A DEMONYM (/ˈdɛmənɪm/ ; δῆμος dẽmos "people, tribe", ὄόνομα ónoma "name") is a word that identifies residents or natives of a particular place, which is derived from the name of that particular place. It is a neologism (i.e., a recently minted term); previously GENTILIC was recorded in English dictionaries, e.g., the Oxford
Oxford
English Dictionary and Chambers Twentieth Century Dictionary. Examples of demonyms include a Swahili for a person of the Swahili coast , the colloquial Kiwi for a person from New Zealand
New Zealand
, and a Cochabambino for a person from the city of Cochabamba
Cochabamba
. Demonyms do not always clearly distinguish place of origin or ethnicity from place of residence or citizenship, and many demonyms overlap with the ethnonym for the ethnically dominant group of a region
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Grammatical Number
In linguistics, GRAMMATICAL NUMBER is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more"). In many languages, including English , the number categories are singular and plural . Some languages also have a dual , trial , quadral and paucal number or other arrangements. The count distinctions typically, but not always, correspond to the actual count of the referents of the marked noun or pronoun. The word "number" is also used in linguistics to describe the distinction between certain grammatical aspects that indicate the number of times an event occurs, such as the semelfactive aspect, the iterative aspect, etc. For that use of the term, see "Grammatical aspect "
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Joan Coromines
JOAN COROMINES I VIGNEAUX (Catalan pronunciation: ) (also frequently spelled Joan Corominas; Barcelona
Barcelona
, Catalonia
Catalonia
, Spain
Spain
1905 – Pineda de Mar , Catalonia
Catalonia
, Spain
Spain
, 1997) was a linguist who made important contributions to the study of Catalan , Spanish , and other Romance languages
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Absolutive Case
The ABSOLUTIVE CASE (abbreviated ABS) is the unmarked grammatical case of a core argument of a verb (generally other than the nominative ) that is used as the citation form of a noun. CONTENTS * 1 In ergative–absolutive languages * 2 In nominative–absolutive languages * 3 In tripartite languages * 4 In nominative–accusative languages * 5 See also IN ERGATIVE–ABSOLUTIVE LANGUAGESIn ergative–absolutive languages , the absolutive is the case used to mark both the subject of an intransitive verb and the object of a transitive verb in addition to being used for the citation form of a noun. It contrasts with the marked ergative case , which marks the subject of a transitive verb
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ISO 3166-2
ISO 3166-2 is part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization
Standardization
(ISO), and defines codes for identifying the principal subdivisions (e.g., provinces or states ) of all countries coded in ISO 3166-1 . The official name of the standard is Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions – Part 2: Country subdivision code. It was first published in 1998. The purpose of ISO 3166-2 is to establish an international standard of short and unique alphanumeric codes to represent the relevant administrative divisions and dependent territories of all countries in a more convenient and less ambiguous form than their full names
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Eginhard
EINHARD (also EGINHARD or EINHART; Latin
Latin
: Einhardus; c. 775 – March 14, 840 AD) was a Frankish scholar and courtier. Einhard
Einhard
was a dedicated servant of Charlemagne
Charlemagne
and his son Louis the Pious
Louis the Pious
; his main work is a biography of Charlemagne, the Vita Karoli Magni , "one of the most precious literary bequests of the early Middle Ages." CONTENTS * 1 Public life * 2 Private life * 3 Religious beliefs * 4 Local lore * 5 Works * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Bibliography * 9 External links PUBLIC LIFE Einhard
Einhard
was from the eastern German-speaking part of the Frankish Kingdom
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Charlemagne
CHARLEMAGNE (/ˈʃɑːrlᵻmeɪn/ ) or CHARLES THE GREAT (2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered CHARLES I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774 and Emperor of the Romans from 800. He united much of Europe during the early Middle Ages . He was the first recognised emperor in western Europe since the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
three centuries earlier. The expanded Frankish state that Charlemagne
Charlemagne
founded is called the Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
. Charlemagne
Charlemagne
was the oldest son of Pepin the Short and Bertrada of Laon . He became king in 768 following his father's death, initially as co-ruler with his brother Carloman I
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Royal Frankish Annals
The ROYAL FRANKISH ANNALS ( Latin
Latin
: Annales regni Francorum; also Annales Laurissenses maiores and German : Reichsannalen) are Latin annals composed in Carolingian Francia
Francia
, recording year-by-year the state of the monarchy from 741 (the death of Mayor of the Palace Charles Martel
Charles Martel
) to 829 (the beginning of the crisis of Louis the Pious ). Their authorship is unknown, though Wilhelm von Giesebrecht suggested that Arno of Salzburg was the author of an early section of the Annaes Laurissenses majores surviving in the copy at Lorsch Abbey . The Annals
Annals
are believed to have been composed in successive sections by different authors, and then compiled
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Official Language
An OFFICIAL LANGUAGE is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction . Typically a country's official language refers to the language used within government (e.g., courts, parliament, administration). Since "the means of expression of a people cannot be changed by any law", the term "official language" does not typically refer to the language used by a people or country, but by its government. Worldwide, 178 countries have at least one official language, and 101 of these countries recognise more than one language. Many of the world's constitutions mention one or more official or national languages . Some countries use the official language designation to empower indigenous groups by giving them access to the government in their native languages
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France
FRANCE (French: ), officially the FRENCH REPUBLIC (French: République française, pronounced ), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France
France
in western Europe
Europe
, as well as several overseas regions and territories . The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the English Channel
English Channel
and the North Sea
North Sea
, and from the Rhine
Rhine
to the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America
South America
and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans
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Vasconic
The VASCONIC LANGUAGES (from Spanish vasco "Basque") are a putative family of languages that includes Basque and the extinct Aquitanian language . The extinct Iberian languages
Iberian languages
are also frequently included. The concept of the Vasconic languages is often linked to the Vasconic substratum hypothesis of Theo Vennemann , who speculated that the ancestors of the Basque spread across Europe at the end of the last glacial period when the Cro-Magnons entered Europe and left traces in the modern languages of Europe. Along with other hypotheses that seek to relate Basque to other languages of the world, this is widely rejected by historical linguists
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Latifundium
A LATIFUNDIUM is a very extensive parcel of privately owned land. The latifundia (Latin: lātus, "spacious" + fundus, "farm, estate") of Roman history were great landed estates specializing in agriculture destined for export: grain, olive oil, or wine. They were characteristic of Magna Graecia and Sicily
Sicily
, Egypt
Egypt
, the Greater Maghreb
Maghreb
and Hispania Baetica
Hispania Baetica
. The latifundia were the closest approximation to industrialized agriculture in Antiquity, and their economics depended upon slavery . During the modern colonial period , the European monarchies often rewarded services with extensive land grants in their empires. The forced recruitment of local laborers allowed by colonial law made these land grants particularly lucrative for their owners
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Visigoths
The VISIGOTHS (UK : /ˈvɪzɪˌɡɒθs/ ; US : /ˈvɪzɪˌɡɑːθs/ ; Latin : Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, or Wisi; Italian : Visigoti) were the western branches of the nomadic tribes of Germanic peoples referred to collectively as the Goths
Goths
. These tribes flourished and spread throughout the late Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in Late Antiquity , or what is known as the Migration Period
Migration Period
. The Visigoths emerged from earlier Gothic groups (possibly the Thervingi ) who had invaded the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
beginning in 376 and had defeated the Romans at the Battle of Adrianople in 378. Relations between the Romans and the Visigoths
Visigoths
were variable, alternately warring with one another and making treaties when convenient
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