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National DNA Database
A DNA database or DNA databank is a database of DNA profiles which can be used in the analysis of genetic diseases, genetic fingerprinting for criminology, or genetic genealogy. DNA databases may be public or private, but the largest ones are national DNA databases. When a match is made from a national DNA database to link a crime scene to a person whose DNA profile is stored on a database, that link is often referred to as a cold hit
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Database
A database is an organized collection of data.[1] A relational database, more restrictively, is a collection of schemas, tables, queries, reports, views, and other elements. Database
Database
designers typically organize the data to model aspects of reality in a way that supports processes requiring information, such as (for example) modelling the availability of rooms in hotels in a way that supports finding a hotel with vacancies. A database-management system (DBMS) is a computer-software application that interacts with end-users, other applications, and the database itself to capture and analyze data
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Civil Liberties
Civil liberties
Civil liberties
or personal freedoms are personal guarantees and freedoms that the government cannot abridge, either by law or by judicial interpretation, without due process. Though the scope of the term differs between countries, civil liberties may include the freedom of conscience, freedom of press, freedom of religion, freedom of expression, freedom of assembly, the right to security and liberty, freedom of speech, the right to privacy, the right to equal treatment under the law and due process, the right to a fair trial, and the right to life. Other civil liberties include the right to own property, the right to defend oneself, and the right to bodily integrity
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Germany
Coordinates: 51°N 9°E / 51°N 9°E / 51; 9Federal Republic
Republic
of Germany Bundesrepublik Deutschland (German)[a]FlagCoat of armsMotto:  "Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit" (de facto) "Unity and Justice and Freedom"Anthem: "Deutschlandlied" (third verse only)[b] "Song of Germany"Location of  Germany  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)Location of
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Italy
Coordinates: 43°N 12°E / 43°N 12°E / 43; 12Italian Republic Repubblica Italiana  (Italian)FlagEmblemAnthem: Il Canto degli Italiani  (Italian) "The Song of the Italians"Location of  Italy  (dark green) – in Europe  (light green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (light green)  –  [Legend]Capital and largest city Rome 41°54′N 12°29′E / 41.900°N 12.483°E / 41.900; 12.483Official languages ItalianaNative languages see full listReligion83.3% Christians 12.4% irreligious 3.7% Muslims 0.2% Buddhists 0.1% Hindus 0.3% other religions[1]Demonym ItalianGovernment Unitary constitutional parliamentary republic• PresidentSergio Mattarella• Prime MinisterPaolo Gentiloni• President of the SenateElisabetta Casellati•&
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23andme
23andMe
23andMe
is a privately held personal genomics and biotechnology company based in Mountain View, California. The company is named for the 23 pairs of chromosomes in a normal human cell.[3] The company had a previously fraught relationship with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration due to its genetic health tests, but as of October 2015, DNA tests ordered in the US include a revised health component per FDA approval.[4][5] 23andMe
23andMe
has been selling a product with both ancestry and health-related components in Canada
Canada
since October 2014,[6][7][8] and in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
since December 2014.[9] In 2007, 23andMe
23andMe
became the first company to begin offering autosomal DNA testing for ancestry, which all other major companies now use
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Duke University
Duke University
Duke University
is a private research university located in Durham, North Carolina. Founded by Methodists and Quakers
Quakers
in the present-day town of Trinity in 1838, the school moved to Durham in 1892.[9] In 1924, tobacco and electric power industrialist James Buchanan Duke established The Duke Endowment, at which time the institution changed its name to honor his deceased father, Washington Duke. Duke's campus spans over 8,600 acres (3,500 hectares) on three contiguous campuses in Durham as well as a marine lab in Beaufort. The main campus—designed largely by architect Julian Abele—incorporates Gothic architecture with the 210-foot (64-meter) Duke Chapel
Duke Chapel
at the campus' center and highest point of elevation
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Newborn Screening
Newborn
Newborn
screening is a public health program of screening in infants shortly after birth for a list of conditions that are treatable, but not clinically evident in the newborn period. Some of the conditions included in newborn screening programs are only detectable after irreversible damage has been done; in some cases sudden death is the first manifestation of a disease. Screening programs are often run by state or national governing bodies with the goal of screening all infants born in the jurisdiction. The number of diseases screened for is set by each jurisdiction, and can vary greatly. Most newborn screening tests are done by measuring metabolites and enzyme activity in whole blood samples collected on specialized filter paper. Many areas are starting to screen infants for hearing loss using automated auditory brainstem response and congenital heart defects using pulse oximetry
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Dried Blood Spot Testing
Dried blood spot testing (DBS) is a form of biosampling where blood samples are blotted and dried on filter paper. The dried samples can easily be shipped to an analytical laboratory and analysed using various methods such as DNA amplification or HPLC.Contents1 History 2 Procedure 3 Dried blood spot testing for HIV infection 4 Principle 5 See also 6 ReferencesHistory[edit] The concept that capillary blood, obtained from pricking the heel or finger and blotted onto filter paper, could be used to screen for metabolic diseases in large populations of neonates was introduced in Scotland by Robert Guthrie
Robert Guthrie
in 1963. Neonatal screening for phenylketonuria became nationwide in 1969-70
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Denmark
Denmark
Denmark
(/ˈdɛnmɑːrk/ ( listen); Danish: Danmark, pronounced [ˈdanmɑɡ] ( listen)), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,[N 9] is a Nordic country and a sovereign state. The southernmost of the Scandinavian nations, it is south-west of Sweden
Sweden
and south of Norway,[N 10] and bordered to the south by Germany. The Kingdom of Denmark
Denmark
also comprises two autonomous constituent countries in the North Atlantic Ocean: the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Denmark
Denmark
proper consists of a peninsula, Jutland, and an archipelago of 443 named islands,[N 2][10] with the largest being Zealand, Funen
Funen
and the North Jutlandic Island. The islands are characterised by flat, arable land and sandy coasts, low elevation and a temperate climate
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Phenylketonuria
Phenylketonuria
Phenylketonuria
(PKU) is an inborn error of metabolism that results in decreased metabolism of the amino acid phenylalanine.[3] Untreated PKU can lead to intellectual disability, seizures, behavioral problems, and mental disorders.[1] It may also result in a musty smell and lighter skin.[1] Babies born to mothers who have poorly treated PKU may have heart problems, a small head, and low birth weight.[1]
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Genetic Privacy
Genetic privacy involves the right or mandate of personal privacy concerning the storing, repurposing, provision to third parties, and displaying of information pertaining to one's genetic information.[1][2] The advent of new technologies streamline high-throughput, low-cost sequencing[3] of human genomes that raises important ethical concerns about the future of healthcare.Contents1 Issues 2 Regulations2.1 In the United States3 Other 4 Breaching techniques 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksIssues[edit]This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (December 2016)Dr. Yaniv Erlich conducted a study in 2013 that revealed vulnerabilities in the security of public databases that contain genetic data
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Paternity (law)
Paternity law refers to body of law underlying legal relationship between a father and his biological or adopted children and deals with the rights and obligations of both the father and the child to each other as well as to others
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Sweden
Coordinates: 63°N 16°E / 63°N 16°E / 63; 16Kingdom of Sweden Konungariket Sverige[a]FlagGreater coat of armsMotto: (royal) "För Sverige – i tiden"[a] "For Sweden
Sweden
– With the Times"[1]Anthem: Du gamla, Du fria[b] Thou ancient, thou freeRoyal anthem: Kungssången Song of the KingLocation of  Sweden  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)  –  [Legend]Capital and largest city Stockholm 59°21′N 18°4′E /
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Criminal Justice And Police Act 2001
The Criminal Justice and Police Act 2001
Criminal Justice and Police Act 2001
is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
which gave extra powers to the police, with the to tackle crime and disorder more effectively.[1] Key provisions include the introduction of on-the-spot penalties for disorderly behaviour, restrictions on alcohol consumption in public places and the creation of a new criminal offence for protesting outside someone's house in an intimidating manner.[citation needed] The act reintroduced the ranks of deputy chief constable, deputy assistant commissioner and chief superintendent, which had been abolished by the Police Act 1996. References[edit]^ "Criminal Justice and Police Act 2001". The Guardian. 19 January 2009. This legislation in the United Kingdom, or its constituent jurisdictions article is a stub
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Criminal Justice Act 2003
The Criminal Justice Act 2003[1] (c.44) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It is a wide-ranging measure introduced to modernise many areas of the criminal justice system in England and Wales and, to a lesser extent, in Scotland
Scotland
and Northern Ireland. It amends the law relating to police powers, bail, disclosure, allocation of criminal offences, prosecution appeals, autrefois acquit ("double jeopardy"), hearsay, propensity evidence, bad character evidence, sentencing and release on licence. It permits offences to be tried by a judge sitting alone without a jury in cases where there is a danger of jury-tampering
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