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Nation-building
Nation-building is constructing or structuring a national identity using the power of the state.[1] It is thus narrower than what Paul James calls "nation formation", the broad process through which nations come into being.[2] Nation-building aims at the unification of the people within the state so that it remains politically stable and viable in the long run. According to Harris Mylonas, "Legitimate authority in modern national states is connected to popular rule, to majorities
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British Raj
Indian languagesGovernment ColonyMonarch of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and Emperor/Empressa •  1858–1901 Victoria •  1901–1910 Edward VII •  1910–1936 George V •  1936 Edward VIII •  1936–1947 George VI Viceroy
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Senegambia Confederation
Senegambia, officially the Senegambia Confederation, was a loose confederation in the late 20th century between the West African countries of Senegal
Senegal
and its neighbour The Gambia, which is almost completely surrounded by Senegal. The confederation was founded on 1 February 1982 following an agreement between the two countries signed on 12 December 1981. It was intended to promote cooperation between the two countries, but was dissolved by Senegal
Senegal
on 30 September 1989 after The Gambia
The Gambia
refused to move closer toward union.Contents1 History 2 Problems with Senegambia's border 3 Birth of the Confederation 4 End of the Confederation 5 ReferencesHistory[edit] As a political unit, Senegambia was created by dueling French and English colonial forces in the region. Competition between the French and the English began in the 16th century when both started to establish trading centers
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Ethiopia
Coordinates: 8°N 38°E / 8°N 38°E / 8; 38Federal Democratic Republic
Republic
of Ethiopia የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዴሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī RīpebilīkFlagEmblemAnthem:  ወደፊት ገስግሺ፣ ውድ እናት ኢትዮጵያ March Forward, Dear Mother EthiopiaCapital and largest city Addis Ababa 9°1′N 38°45′E / 9.017°N 38.750°E / 9.017; 38.750Official languages
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National Identity
National identity
National identity
is one's identity or sense of belonging to one state or to one nation.[1][2] It is the sense of a nation as a cohesive whole, as represented by distinctive traditions, culture, language and politics.[3] National identity
National identity
may refer to the subjective feeling one shares with a group of people about a nation, regardless of one's legal citizenship status.[4] National identity
National identity
is viewed in psychological terms as "an awareness of difference", a "feeling and recognition of 'we' and 'they'".[5] The expression of one's national identity seen in a positive light is patriotism which is characterized by national pride and positive emotion of love for one's country
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India
India, officially the Republic
Republic
of India
India
(IAST: Bhārat Gaṇarājya),[e] is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country (with over 1.2 billion people), and the most populous democracy in the world. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan
Pakistan
to the west;[f] China, Nepal, and Bhutan
Bhutan
to the northeast; and Myanmar
Myanmar
and Bangladesh
Bangladesh
to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India
India
is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and the Maldives
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Pakistan
Coordinates: 30°N 70°E / 30°N 70°E / 30; 70 Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
of Pakistan اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاكِستان‬ (Urdu) Islāmī Jumhūriyah Pākistān[1]FlagEmblemMotto: Īmān, Ittihād, Nazam ایمان، اتحاد، نظم‬ (Urdu) "Faith, Unity, Discipline" [2]Anthem: Qaumī Tarānah قَومی ترانہ‬ "The National Anthem"[3]Area controlled by Pakistan
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Rwandan Genocide
European colonization of the AmericasDzungar genocide, 1750s Manifest DestinyIndian Removal, 1830s California Genocide, 1848–1873Circassian genocide, 1860s Selk'nam genocide, 1890s–1900s Herero and Namaqua genocide, 1904–1907 Greek genocide, 1914–1923 Assyrian genocide, 1914–1925 Armenian Genocide, 1915–1923 Libyan Genocide, 1923–1932Soviet genocide Ethnic cleansing
Ethnic cleansing
in the Soviet UnionSoviet famine of 1932–33Holodomor, 1931–1933 Kazakhstan, 1930–1933Mass Deportations during World War IIKalmyks, 1943 Chechens and Ingush, 1944 Crimean Tatars, 1944Nazi
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Sudan
The Sudan
Sudan
or Sudan
Sudan
(/suːˈdæn, -ˈdɑːn/ ( listen);[8][9] Arabic: السودان‎ as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan
Sudan
since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic
Republic
of the Sudan[10] (Arabic: جمهورية السودان‎ Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northern Africa. It is bordered by Egypt to the north, the Red Sea, Eritrea
Eritrea
and Ethiopia
Ethiopia
to the east, South Sudan
Sudan
to the south, the Central African Republic
Central African Republic
to the southwest, Chad
Chad
to the west and Libya
Libya
to the northwest. It is the third largest country in Africa
Africa
covering 1,886,068 square kilometres (728,215 sq mi)
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Cameroon
Coordinates: 6°N 12°E / 6°N 12°E / 6; 12Republic of Cameroon République du Cameroun  (French)FlagCoat of armsMotto:  "Paix – Travail – Patrie" (French) "Peace – Work – Fatherland"Anthem:  Ô Cameroun, Berceau de nos Ancêtres  (French) (English: "O Cameroon, Cradle of our Forefathers")Capital Yaoundé[1] 3°52′N 11°31′E / 3.867°N 11.517°E / 3.867; 11.517Largest city Douala[1]Official languages French EnglishEthnic groups31% Cameroon
Cameroon
Highlanders 19% Equatorial Bantu 11% Kirdi 1
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Anglophone Problem (Cameroon)
The Anglophone Problem, as it is commonly referred to in Cameroon, is a socio-political issue rooted in Cameroon's colonial legacies from the Germans, British, and the French.Contents1 Background 2 Origins of the Anglophone Problem (Southern Cameroons)2.1 The European Colonizers 2.2 Gaining Independence 2.3 The Foumban Conference of July 17–21, 19613 The Anglophone Problem3.1 Separation 3.2 Federation 3.3 Unitary4 The Struggle for Political Representation 5 Symptoms of Discontent by the Anglophones5.1 The prioritization of the French language over the English language6 Spiraling of the Anglophone Problem 7 Outcomes of the Anglophone Problem 8 See also 9 ReferencesBackground[edit] The issue classically and principally opposes many Cameroonians from the Northwest and Southwest regions, many of whom consider themselves anglophones, to the rest of Cameroonians
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French Language
French (le français [lə fʁɑ̃sɛ] ( listen) or la langue française [la lɑ̃ɡ fʁɑ̃sɛz]) is a Romance language
Romance language
of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French has evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin
Latin
in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France
France
and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages
Celtic languages
of Northern Roman Gaul
Gaul
like Gallia Belgica
Gallia Belgica
and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders
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Adria Lawrence
Adria K. Lawrence is an American political scientist and the Aronson Associate Professor of International Studies and Political Science at Johns Hopkins University. She is known for her expertise on colonialism, nationalism, conflict, collective action, and Middle Eastern and North African politics.[1] Her book, Imperial Rule and the Politics of Nationalism, won the 2015 J. David Greenstone Book Prize, the 2015 L. Carl Brown Book Prize and the 2014 Jervis-Schroeder Best Book Award. Books[edit]Imperial Rule and the Politics of Nationalism: Anti-Colonial Protest in the French Empire, Cambridge University Press, 2013, ISBN 9781107640757 Rethinking Violence: States and Non-State Actors in Conflict (Co-edited with Erica Chenoweth), BCSIA Studies in International Security Series, MIT Press, 2010, ISBN 9780262514286References[edit]^ "Adria Lawrence". Comparative Politics & International Relations. Retrieved 4 March 2018. External links[edit]Adria K
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English-speaking World
Approximately 330 to 360 million people speak English as their first language.[1] The United States
United States
has the most native speakers at 258 million. Additionally, there are 60 million native English speakers in the United Kingdom, 19 million in Canada, 16.5 million in Australia, 4.5 million in Ireland, and 3.8 million in New Zealand. Other countries also use English as their primary and official languages. English is the third largest language by number of native speakers, after Mandarin and Spanish.[2] Estimates that include second language speakers vary greatly, from 470 million to more than 1 billion
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Erica Chenoweth
Erica Chenoweth (born April 22, 1980) is an American political scientist as well as a faculty member and Ph.D. program co-director at the University of Denver's Josef Korbel School of International Studies.[1] Chenoweth is also the Director of the university's Program on Terrorism and Insurgency Research and a researcher at the Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO). Within the international relations community, she is known for her work on civil resistance movements and political violence.Contents1 Education 2 Work and awards 3 Bibliography 4 References 5 External linksEducation[edit] Chenoweth received her B.A. at the University of Dayton, followed by an M.A. and a Ph.D. from the University of Colorado
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Fiscal Capacity
Fiscal capacity is the ability of the state to extract revenues to provide public goods and carry out other functions of the state, given an administrative, fiscal accounting structure.[1] In economics and political science, fiscal capacity may be referred to as tax capacity, extractive capacity or the power to tax, as taxes are a main source of public revenues. Nonetheless, though tax revenue is essential to fiscal capacity, taxes may not be the government's only source of revenue
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