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Nassau Agreement
The Nassau Agreement, concluded on 21 December 1962, was an agreement negotiated between U.S. President John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
and Harold Macmillan, the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, as a result of a series of meetings by the two leaders over three days in the Bahamas following Kennedy's announcement of his intended cancellation of the Skybolt. The agreement ended the Skybolt crisis and enabled the UK Polaris programme. Under an earlier agreement, the US had agreed to supply Skybolt, an American air-launched ballistic missile, in return for the UK allowing the Americans to establish a ballistic missile submarine base in the Holy Loch
Holy Loch
near Glasgow. The British government had then cancelled the development of its medium-range ballistic missile, known as Blue Streak, leaving Skybolt as the basis of the UK's nuclear deterrent in the 1960s
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President Of The United States
House of RepresentativesSpeaker Paul Ryan
Paul Ryan
(R)Majority Leader Kevin McCarthy (R)Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi
Nancy Pelosi
(D)Co
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Operation Hurricane
Operation Hurricane
Operation Hurricane
was the test of the first UK atomic device, on 3 October 1952. A plutonium implosion device was detonated in the lagoon in the Monte Bello Islands
Monte Bello Islands
in Western Australia. With the success of Operation Hurricane, Britain became the third nuclear power after the United States and the Soviet Union. During the Second World War, Britain commenced a nuclear weapons project, known as Tube Alloys, but the 1943 Quebec Agreement
Quebec Agreement
merged it with the American Manhattan Project. Several key British scientists worked as part of the British contribution to the Manhattan Project, but after the war the Americans ended cooperation on nuclear weapons. In January 1947, a cabinet sub-committee decided, in response to an apprehension of American isolationism and fears of Britain losing its great power status, to resume British efforts to build nuclear weapons
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Tube Alloys
Tube Alloys
Tube Alloys
was a codename of the clandestine research and development programme, authorised by the United Kingdom, with participation from Canada, to develop nuclear weapons during the Second World War. Starting before the Manhattan Project
Manhattan Project
in the United States, the British efforts were kept classified and as such had to be referred to by code even within the highest circles of government. The possibility of nuclear weapons was acknowledged early in the war. At the University of Birmingham, Rudolf Peierls
Rudolf Peierls
and Otto Frisch co-wrote a memorandum explaining that a small mass of pure uranium-235 could be used to produce a chain reaction in a bomb with the power of thousands of tons of TNT. This led to the formation of the MAUD Committee, which called for an all-out effort to develop nuclear weapons
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Quebec Conference, 1943
The First Quebec Conference (codenamed "QUADRANT") was a highly secret military conference held during World War II
World War II
between the British, Canadian and United States
United States
governments. The conference was held in Quebec City, August 17, 1943 – August 24, 1943. It took place at the Citadelle and at the Château Frontenac. The chief representatives were Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
and Franklin D. Roosevelt, hosted by the Canadian Prime Minister, William Lyon Mackenzie King.[1]Contents1 Conference 2 See also 3 References 4 Further reading 5 External links 6 GalleryConference[edit]Mackenzie King, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, and the Earl of Athlone at La CitadelleAlthough Churchill suggested that Mackenzie King be involved in all discussions, Roosevelt vetoed the idea.[2] As a result, Mackenzie King's hospitality was almost purely for ceremonial purposes
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Winston Churchill
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG OM CH TD DL FRS RA (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, serving as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955. As a Member of Parliament (MP), he represented five constituencies during his career. As Prime Minister, Churchill oversaw British victory in the Second World War. Ideologically an economic liberal and British imperialist, he was a member of the Liberal Party from 1904 to 1924 before joining the Conservative Party, which he led from 1940 to 1955. Born in Oxfordshire
Oxfordshire
to an aristocratic family, Churchill was the son of an English politician and an American socialite. Joining the British Army, he saw action in British India, the Anglo–Sudan War, and the Second Boer
Boer
War, gaining fame as a war correspondent and writing books about his campaigns
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Franklin Roosevelt
Governor of New York GovernorshipPresident of the United States PresidencyFirst Term1932 campaignElection1st Inauguration First 100 daysNew Deal Glass-Steagall Act WPA Social Security SEC Fireside ChatsSecond Term1936 campaignElection2nd InaugurationSupreme Court Packing National Recovery Act 1937 Recession March of Dimes Pre-war foreign policyThird Term1940 campaignElection3rd InaugurationWorld War IIWorld War IIAttack on Pearl Harbor Infamy Speech Atlantic Charter Japanese Internment Tehran Conference United Nations D-DaySecond Bill of Rights G.I
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Quebec Agreement
The Quebec
Quebec
Agreement was an agreement between the United Kingdom and the United States outlining the terms for the coordinated development of the basic science and advanced engineering related to nuclear energy, and, specifically nuclear weapons. It was signed by Winston Churchill and Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
on 19 August 1943, during World War II, at the Quadrant Conference
Quadrant Conference
in Quebec
Quebec
City, Quebec, Canada. The Quebec
Quebec
Agreement stipulated that nuclear weapons development would be a joint venture with a free exchange of information, and that neither country would use them against the other, or against other countries without mutual consent, or pass information about them to other countries
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Manhattan Project
The Manhattan Project
Manhattan Project
was a research and development undertaking during World War II
World War II
that produced the first nuclear weapons. It was led by the United States
United States
with the support of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and Canada. From 1942 to 1946, the project was under the direction of Major General Leslie Groves
Leslie Groves
of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Nuclear physicist Robert Oppenheimer
Robert Oppenheimer
was the director of the Los Alamos Laboratory that designed the actual bombs. The Army component of the project was designated the Manhattan District; "Manhattan" gradually superseded the official codename, Development of Substitute Materials, for the entire project. Along the way, the project absorbed its earlier British counterpart, Tube Alloys
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United States Atomic Energy Act Of 1946
The Atomic Energy Act of 1946
Atomic Energy Act of 1946
(McMahon Act) determined how the United States would control and manage the nuclear technology it had jointly developed with its World War II
World War II
allies, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and Canada. Most significantly, the Act ruled that nuclear weapon development and nuclear power management would be under civilian, rather than military control, and established the United States
United States
Atomic Energy Commission for this purpose. It was sponsored by Senator Brien McMahon, a Democrat from Connecticut, who chaired the United States
United States
Senate Special
Special
Committee on Atomic Energy, and whose hearings in late 1945 and early 1946 led to the fine tuning and passing of the Act
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United States Isolationism
Non-interventionism, the diplomatic policy whereby a nation seeks to avoid alliances with other nations in order to avoid being drawn into wars not related to direct territorial self-defense, has had a long history of popularity in the government and among the people of the United States
United States
at various periods in time.Contents1 Background 2 No entangling alliances (19th century) 3 20th century non-interventionism3.1 Between the World Wars 3.2
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Great Power
A great power is a sovereign state that is recognized as having the ability and expertise to exert its influence on a global scale. Great powers characteristically possess military and economic strength, as well as diplomatic and soft power influence, which may cause middle or small powers to consider the great powers' opinions before taking actions of their own. International relations theorists have posited that great power status can be characterized into power capabilities, spatial aspects, and status dimensions. While some nations are widely considered to be great powers, there is no definitive list of them
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High Explosive Research
High Explosive Research
High Explosive Research
was the British project to independently develop atomic bombs after the Second World War. This decision was taken by a cabinet sub-committee on 8 January 1947, in response to apprehension of an American return to isolationism, fears that Britain might lose its great power status, and the actions by the United States to unilaterally withdraw from sharing of nuclear technology under the 1943 Quebec Agreement. The decision was publicly announced in the House of Commons
House of Commons
on 12 May 1948. The project was a civil, not a military, one. Staff were drawn from and recruited into the Civil Service, and were paid Civil Service salaries. It was headed by Lord Portal, as Controller of Production, Atomic Energy, in the Ministry of Supply. An Atomic Energy Research Establishment was located at a former airfield, Harwell, in Berkshire, under the direction of John Cockcroft
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British Hydrogen Bomb Programme
The British hydrogen bomb programme
British hydrogen bomb programme
was the ultimately successful British effort to develop hydrogen bombs between 1952 and 1958. During the early part of the Second World War, Britain had a nuclear weapons project, codenamed Tube Alloys. At the Quebec Conference in August 1943, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
and U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt
Franklin Roosevelt
signed the Quebec Agreement, merging Tube Alloys into the American Manhattan Project, which many of Britain's top scientists participated in. The British government trusted that America would share nuclear technology, which it considered to be a joint discovery, but the United States Atomic Energy Act of 1946
United States Atomic Energy Act of 1946
(also known as the McMahon Act) ended technical cooperation
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Second World War
Allied victoryCollapse of Nazi Germany Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires Dissolution of the League of Nations Creation of the United Nations Emergence of the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as superpowers Beginning of the Cold War
Cold War
(more...)ParticipantsAllied Powers Axis PowersCommanders and leadersMain Allied leaders Joseph Stalin Franklin D
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Sputnik Crisis
World War II Supreme Allied Commander in EuropeD-Day Operation OverlordSurrender of Germany VE-DayCrusade in EuropePresident of the United StatesPresidencyFirst TermDraft movement1952 CampaignElection1st InaugurationKorean War Atoms for PeaceCold WarNew Look Domino theoryInterstate Highway SystemSecond Term1956 campaignElection2nd InaugurationEisenhower DoctrineSputnik crisis Missile gapNDEA NASA DARPACivil Rights Act of 1957 Little Rock NineU-2 incident Farewell AddressPost-PresidencyLegacy Presidential library and museum Tributes and memorialsv t eThe Sputnik crisis
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