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Narungga
The NARUNGGA are a group of Indigenous Australians
Indigenous Australians
whose traditional lands are located on Yorke Peninsula
Yorke Peninsula
, South Australia
South Australia
. The boundary of their traditional lands runs roughly between the towns of Port Broughton and Port Wakefield . They were a nomadic people who practiced fire-stick farming to flush out wildlife and control vegetation. Their diet also included seafood; their expertise at fishing was much admired by early European settlers and a variety of fish species were often traded for tobacco and other goods. Soon after the establishment of Adelaide
Adelaide
in 1836, settlers began moving into Yorke Peninsula. The British concepts of property ownership were incompatible with the Narrunga's nomadic lifestyle, resulting in the gradual displacement of the indigenous population
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Adelaide
ADELAIDE (/ˈædəleɪd/ ( listen ) AD-ə-layd ) is the capital city of the state of South Australia , and the fifth-most populous city of Australia
Australia
. In June 2016, Adelaide
Adelaide
had an estimated resident population of 1,326,354. South Australia, with a total of 1.7 million inhabitants, has the most centralised population of any state in Australia
Australia
, with more than 75 percent of its people living in greater Adelaide, while the other population centres in the state are relatively small. Adelaide
Adelaide
is north of the Fleurieu Peninsula
Fleurieu Peninsula
, on the Adelaide
Adelaide
Plains between the Gulf St Vincent and the low-lying Mount Lofty Ranges which surround the city
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Fire-stick Farming
FIRE-STICK FARMING was the practice of Indigenous Australians who regularly used fire to burn vegetation to facilitate hunting and to change the composition of plant and animal species in an area. Fire-stick farming had the long-term effect of turning dry forest into savannah, increasing the population of nonspecific grass-eating species like the kangaroo . One theory of the extinction of Australian megafauna implicates the ecological disturbance caused by fire-stick farming. In the resultant sclerophyll forests, fire-stick farming maintained an open canopy and allowed germination of understory plants necessary for increasing the carrying capacity of the local environment for browsing and grazing marsupials . Aboriginal people may have been able to aim the burning of the scrub to avoid growing areas. There may have been a ritual taboo against burning certain areas of jungle
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Moravian Church
The MORAVIAN CHURCH, formally named the UNITAS FRATRUM (Latin for the " Unity of the Brethren "), in German known as Herrnhuter Brüdergemeinde (meaning "Brethren's Congregation from Herrnhut ", the place of the Church's renewal in the 18th century), is one of the oldest Protestant denominations in the world, with its heritage dating back to the Bohemian Reformation in the fifteenth century and the Unity of the Brethren ( Jednota bratrská in Czech) established in Kingdom of Bohemia
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Aboriginal Australians
ABORIGINAL AUSTRALIANS are legally defined as people who are members "of the Aboriginal race of Australia" (indigenous to mainland Australia or to the island of Tasmania
Tasmania
)
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Indulkana
INDULKANA (also known as IWANTJA) is an Aboriginal community in the Anangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara Lands in South Australia , comprising one of the six main communities on "The Lands" (the others being Ernabella /Pukatja , Amata , Fregon /Kaltjiti , Mimili and Pipalyatjara ). At the 2006 census , Indulkana had a population of 315. CONTENTS * 1 Geography * 2 Climate * 3 Population * 4 History * 5 Facilities * 6 Footnotes * 7 External links GEOGRAPHYIndulkana (26°58′00″S 133°19′30″E / 26.966667°S 133.325°E / -26.966667; 133.325 ) is situated just 8 kilometres west of the Stuart Highway and approximately 360 kilometres south of Alice Springs . By road it is 1,200 kilometres north-west of Adelaide
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Western Desert Cultural Bloc
The WESTERN DESERT CULTURAL BLOC or just WESTERN DESERT is a cultural region in central Australia covering about 600,000 square kilometres, including the Gibson Desert , the Great Victoria Desert , the Great Sandy and Little Sandy Deserts in the Northern Territory , South Australia and Western Australia . The Western Desert cultural bloc can be said to stretch from the Nullarbor in the south to the Kimberley in the north, and from the Percival Lakes in the west through to the Pintupi lands in the Northern Territory . The term is often used by anthropologists and linguists when discussing the 40 or so Aboriginal groups that live there, who speak dialects of one language, often called the Western Desert language . Apart from the Canning Stock Route and the Rabbit-proof fence , white contact with this part of Australia was very rare, until the 1960s: No one had been out there. The desert, as far as the Department was concerned..
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Nomadic People
A NOMAD (Greek : νομάς, nomas, plural νομάδες, nomades; meaning one roaming about for pasture, pastoral tribe ) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another. Among the various ways nomads relate to their environment, one can distinguish the hunter-gatherer , the pastoral nomad owning livestock , or the "modern" peripatetic nomad. As of 1995, there were an estimated 30–40 million nomads in the world. Nomadic hunting and gathering, following seasonally available wild plants and game, is by far the oldest human subsistence method. Pastoralists raise herds, driving them, or moving with them, in patterns that normally avoid depleting pastures beyond their ability to recover. Nomadism is also a lifestyle adapted to infertile regions such as steppe , tundra , or ice and sand , where mobility is the most efficient strategy for exploiting scarce resources
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South Australia
SOUTH AUSTRALIA (abbreviated as SA) is a state in the southern central part of Australia
Australia
. It covers some of the most arid parts of the country. With a total land area of 983,482 square kilometres (379,725 sq mi), it is the fourth-largest of Australia's states and territories. It has a total of 1.7 million people, and its population is the most highly centralised of any state in Australia, with more than 75 percent of South Australians living in the capital, Adelaide
Adelaide
, or its environs. Other population centres in the state are relatively small
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Port Wakefield, South Australia
PORT WAKEFIELD (formerly PORT HENRY) was the first government town to be established north of the capital, Adelaide , in South Australia . Port Wakefield is situated 98.7 kilometres (61.3 miles) from the Adelaide city centre and lies on the Port Wakefield Road section of the A1 National Highway . Port Wakefield is situated on the River Wakefield , at the head of the Gulf St Vincent . CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 European discovery * 1.2 The Port and the Railway * 2 Local government * 3 Today * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORYEUROPEAN DISCOVERYThe town was originally named Port Henry by William Hill. The name of the town was, around 1849, changed to Port Wakefield, after the Wakefield River . THE PORT AND THE RAILWAYIn 1848, the Patent Copper Company agreed to build and operate a smelter at Burra
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Indigenous Australians
INDIGENOUS AUSTRALIANS are the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people of Australia , descended from groups that existed in Australia and surrounding islands prior to European colonisation. The time of arrival of the first Indigenous Australians is a matter of debate among researchers. The earliest definitely human remains found in Australia are those of Mungo Man LM3 and Mungo Lady , which have been dated to around 50,000 years BP. . Recent archaeological evidence from the analysis of charcoal and artifacts revealing human use has pushed this date back further to around 65,000 B.P. Luminescence dating has suggested habitation in Arnhem Land as far back as 60,000 years BP. Genetic research has inferred a date of habitation as early as 80,000 years BP. Other estimates have ranged up to 100,000 years and 125,000 years ago
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Poonindie, South Australia
POONINDIE is a small township near Port Lincoln on the Eyre Peninsula , South Australia. The land upon which it sits was originally the land of the Barngarla people. Poonindie was established in 1850 by the Anglican Archbishop of Adelaide Augustus Short as a mission to Aboriginal people in South Australia . The original church survives and remains in use today. The township also survives, with a small population. The mission itself has been converted to an Aboriginal reserve and granted to the Port Lincoln Aboriginal Community Council. The land is now used as a small homeland , called Akenta
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Yandruwandha People
The YANDRUWANDHA, alternatively known as Jandruwanta, are an Indigenous Australian tribe living in the Lakes area of South Australia south of Cooper Creek and west of the Wangkumara people. CONTENTS * 1 Language * 2 Country * 3 History * 4 Customs * 5 Native title * 6 Notable people * 7 Alternative names * 8 Notes and references * 8.1 Notes * 8.2 References LANGUAGEYandruwandha is a generic term referring to a number of dialects, Yawarrawarrka, Nhirppi, Matja, Parlpamardramardra, Ngananhina, Ngapardajdhirri and Ngurawola. It belongs to the Karna group of Karnic languages The best known version is that recorded by Gavan Breen from informants in Innamincka . COUNTRYThe Yandruwandha ranged over an estimated 10,900 sq. miles of their tribal lands, which extended, according to Norman Tindale, from an area south of Cooper Creek , namely from Innamincka to Carraweena. This area also included Strzelecki Creek
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Akenta
AKENTA is a small South Australian Aboriginal homeland , just north of Port Lincoln on the Eyre Peninsula . It is situated on an Aboriginal reserve owned by the Port Lincoln Aboriginal Community Council. The reserve is the site of the now-defunct Poonindie mission . REFERENCES * ^ "Aboriginal Communities". COUNCIL OF ABORIGINAL ELDERS OF SA INC. Retrieved 6 November 2015. This Australian geography article is a stub . You can help by expanding it
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Potaruwutj
The POTARUWUTJ were an indigenous Australian people of the state of South Australia , now believed to be extinct. CONTENTS * 1 Name * 2 Country * 3 Social organization * 4 Culture * 5 Alternative names * 6 Some words * 7 Notes * 7.1 Citations * 8 References NAMEPotaruwutj is an autonym, meaning in their language, 'wandering' (-wutj is a suffix meaning 'man'), referring to their continuous shifting of their campsites throughout the mallee scrubland. COUNTRYRelying on two informants, Clarence Long and Alf Watson, Norman Tindale estimated that the Potaruwutj's lands covered 3,000 square miles (7,800 km2), extending westwards from Naracoorte down to within the third inland dune range of the Coorong area , some 10 miles from the coastline. The northern reaches touched Tatiara . It included Bordertown , Wirrega, and Keith . Ecologically, Potaruwutj territory was less fertile and suffered from lower rainfall than neighbouring areas
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Peramangk
The PERAMANGK are an indigenous Australian people whose traditional lands are primarily located in the Adelaide Hills , and also in the southern stretches of the Fleurieu Peninsula in the Australian state of South Australia . They were also referred to as the Mount Barker tribe, as their numbers were noted to be greater around the Mount Barker summit, but Peramangk country extends from the Barossa Valley in the north, south to Myponga , east to Mannum and west to the Mount Lofty Ranges . Conflicting reports show enmity between the three tribes of the Adelaide region, the Kaurna , Ngarrindjeri and Peramangk, yet other reports tell that the Peramangk were held with some reverence due to their differing cultural practices. Population and traditional practices are hard to verify as shortly after the European settlement of the Adelaide Hills, especially in Mount Barker and Hahndorf , the Peramangk had mysteriously disappeared
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