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Narodnaya Volya
Narodnaya Volya
Narodnaya Volya
(Russian: Наро́дная во́ля, IPA: [nɐˈrodnəjə ˈvolʲə], lit. People's Will) was a 19th-century revolutionary political organization in the Russian Empire which conducted targeted killing of government officials in attempt to promote reforms in the country. The organization declared itself to be a populist movement that succeeded Narodniks
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Ukraine
42,418,235 [4] (32nd)• 2001 census48,457,102[3]• Density73.8/km2 (191.1/sq mi) (115th)GDP (PPP) 2017 estimate• Total$366 billion[5] (50th)• Per capita$8,656[5] (114th)GDP (nominal) 2017 estimate• Total$104 billion[5] (62nd)• Per capita$2,459[5] (132nd)Gini (2015)  25.5[6] low · 18thHDI (2015)  0.743[7] high · 84thCurrency Ukrainian hryvnia
Ukrainian hryvnia
(UAH)Time zone EET (UTC+2[8])• Summer (DST)EEST (UTC+3)Drives on the rightCalling code +380 ISO 3166 code UA Internet
Internet
TLD.ua .укрAn independence referendum was held on 1 December, after which Ukrainian independence was finalized on 26 December.This article contains Cyrillic text
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Kiev
Kiev
Kiev
(/ˈkiːɛf, -ɛv/ KEE-ef, -ev)[10] or Kyiv (Ukrainian: Київ, translit. Kyiv [ˈkɪjiu̯] ( listen); Old East Slavic: Кыѥвъ, translit. Kyjev; Polish: Kijów Polish pronunciation: [ˈkʲijuf]; Russian: Киев, translit. Kiyev [ˈkʲiɪf]) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper. The population in July 2015 was 2,887,974[2] (though higher estimated numbers have been cited in the press),[11] making Kiev
Kiev
the 7th most populous city in Europe.[12] Kiev
Kiev
is an important industrial, scientific, educational, and cultural centre of Eastern Europe
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Bureaucracy
Bureaucracy
Bureaucracy
(/bjuːˈrɒkrəsi/) refers to both a body of non-elective government officials and an administrative policy-making group.[1] Historically, a bureaucracy was a government administration managed by departments staffed with non-elected officials.[2] Today, bureaucracy is the administrative system governing any large institution, whether publicly owned or privately owned.[3][4][5][6][7][8][9] The public administration in many countries is an example of a bureaucracy, but so is the centralized hierarchical structure of a business firm. Since being coined, the word bureaucracy has
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Obshchina
Obshchina (Russian: общи́на, IPA: [ɐpˈɕːinə], literally: "commune") or Mir (Russian: мир, literally: "society" (one of the meanings)) or Selskoye obshestvo (Russian: Cельское общество, "Rural community", official term in the 19th and 20th century; Ukrainian: сільське товариство, translit. sil’s’ké tovarystvo) were peasant village communities, as opposed to individual farmsteads, or khutors, in Imperial Russia. The term derives from the word о́бщий, obshchiy (common). The vast majority of Russian peasants held their land in communal ownership within a mir community, which acted as a village government and a cooperative. Arable land was divided in sections based on soil quality and distance from the village. Each household had the right to claim one or more strips from each section depending on the number of adults in the household
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Capitalism
Capitalism
Capitalism
is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.[1][2][3] Characteristics central to capitalism include private property, capital accumulation, wage labor, voluntary exchange, a price system, and competitive markets.[4][5] In a capitalist market economy, decision-making and investment are determined by every owner of wealth, property or production ability in financial and capital markets, whereas prices and the distribution of goods and services are mainly determined by competition in goods and services markets.[6][7] Economists, political economists, sociologists and historians have adopted different perspectives in their analyses of capitalism and have recognized various forms of it in practice. These include laissez-faire or free market capitalism, welfare capitalism and state capitalism
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Slavophile
Slavophilia
Slavophilia
was an intellectual movement originating from 19th century that wanted the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
to be developed upon values and institutions derived from its early history. Slavophiles opposed the influences of Western Europe
Western Europe
in Russia.[1] There were also similar movements in Poland, Serbia
Serbia
and Croatia, Bulgaria, and Prag. Depending on the historical context, its opposite could be termed Slavophobia, a fear of Slavic culture, or even what some Russian intellectuals called zapadnichestvo (westernism).Contents1 History 2 Doctrine 3 After serfdom 4 Pochvennichestvo 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit] Slavophilia, as an intellectual movement, was developed in the 19th-century Russia. In a sense, there was not one but many Slavophile movements or many branches of the same movement
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Alexander Herzen
Aleksandr Ivanovich Herzen (Russian: Алекса́ндр Ива́нович Ге́рцен; April 6 [O.S. 25 March] 1812 – January 21 [O.S. 9 January] 1870) was a Russian writer and thinker known as the "father of Russian socialism" and one of the main fathers of agrarian populism (being an ideological ancestor of the Narodniki, Socialist-Revolutionaries, Trudoviks and the agrarian American Populist Party). With his writings, many composed while exiled in London, he attempted to influence the situation in Russia, contributing to a political climate that led to the emancipation of the serfs in 1861. He published the important social novel Who is to Blame?
Who is to Blame?
(1845–46)
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Pyotr Lavrov
Pyotr Lavrovich Lavrov (Russian: Пётр Ла́врович Лавро́в; alias Mirtov (Миртов); (June 2 (June 14 N.S.), 1823 – January 25 (February 6 N.S.), 1900) was a prominent Russian theorist of narodism, philosopher, publicist, revolutionary and sociologist. He entered a military academy and graduated in 1842 as an army officer. He became well-versed in natural science, history, logic, philosophy, and psychology. He also became an instructor in mathematics for two decades. Lavrov joined the revolutionary movement as a radical in 1862. His actions led to his being exiled to the Ural Mountains
Ural Mountains
in 1868 from which he soon escaped and fled abroad. In France, he lived mostly in Paris, where he became a member of the Anthropological Society
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Mikhail Bakunin
Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin[a] (/bəˈkuːnɪn/;[1] 30 May [O.S. 18 May] 1814 – 1 July 1876) was a Russian revolutionary anarchist and founder of collectivist anarchism
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St. Petersburg
Saint
Saint
Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, tr. Sankt-Peterburg, IPA: [ˈsankt pʲɪtʲɪrˈburk] ( listen)) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with five million inhabitants in 2012.[9] An important Russian port on the Baltic Sea, it has a status of a federal subject (a federal city). Situated on the Neva
Neva
River, at the head of the Gulf of Finland
Gulf of Finland
on the Baltic Sea, it was founded by Tsar
Tsar
Peter the Great
Peter the Great
on May 27 [O.S. 16] 1703
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Moscow
Moscow
Moscow
(/ˈmɒskoʊ, -kaʊ/; Russian: Москва́, tr. Moskva, IPA: [mɐˈskva] ( listen)) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 12.2 million residents within the city limits[11] and 17.1 million within the urban area.[12] Moscow
Moscow
is recognized as a Russian federal city. Moscow
Moscow
is a major political, economic, cultural, and scientific centre of Russia
Russia
and Eastern Europe, as well as the largest city entirely on the European continent. By broader definitions Moscow
Moscow
is among the world's largest cities, being the 14th largest metro area, the 18th largest agglomeration, the 15th largest urban area, and the 11th largest by population within city limits worldwide
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Odessa
Odessa
Odessa
or Odesa (Ukrainian: Оде́са [ɔˈdɛsɐ]; Russian: Оде́сса [ɐˈdʲesə]) is the third most populous city of Ukraine
Ukraine
and a major tourism center, seaport and transportation hub located on the northwestern shore of the Black Sea. It is also the administrative center of the Odessa Oblast
Odessa Oblast
and a multiethnic cultural center. Odessa
Odessa
is sometimes called the "pearl of the Black Sea",[2] the "South Capital" (under the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
and Soviet Union), and "Southern Palmyra".[3] Before the establishment of Odessa, an ancient Greek settlement existed at its location
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Emancipation Reform Of 1861
The Emancipation Reform of 1861 in Russia (Russian: Крестьянская реформа 1861 года, translit. Krestyanskaya reforma 1861 goda, literally: "the peasants Reform of 1861") was the first and most important of liberal reforms passed during the reign (1855-1881) of Emperor Alexander II of Russia. The reform effectively abolished serfdom throughout the Russian Empire. The 1861 Emancipation Manifesto proclaimed the emancipation of the serfs on private estates and of the domestic (household) serfs. By this edict more than 23 million people received their liberty.[1] Serfs
Serfs
gained the full rights of free citizens, including rights to marry without having to gain consent, to own property and to own a business. The Manifesto prescribed that peasants would be able to buy the land from the landlords
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Okhrana
The Department for Protecting the Public Security and Order (Russian: Отделение по Охранению Общественной Безопасности и Порядка), usually called "guard department" (Russian: Охранное отделение) and commonly abbreviated in modern sources as Okhrana
Okhrana
(Russian: Охрана, IPA: [ɐˈxranə] ( listen), lit. the guard) was a secret police force of the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
and part of the police department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD) in the late 19th century, aided by the Special
Special
Corps of Gendarmes.Contents1 Overview 2 History2.1 Pre-1905 2.2 The Revolution of 1905 2.3 The February Revolution3 Use of torture 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 External linksOverview[edit] St. Petersburg
St

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Mark Natanson
Natanson is a surname. It may refer to:Isidor Pavlovich Natanson, a Soviet mathematician Jacques Natanson, French filmmaker Mark Natanson Władysław NatansonSee also[edit]NathansonThis page lists people with the surname Natanson
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