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Nanochemistry
Nanochemistry is the combination of chemistry and nanoscience. Nanochemistry is associated with synthesis of building blocks which are dependent on size, surface, shape and defect properties. Nanochemistry is being used in chemical, materials and physical, science as well as engineering, biological and medical applications. Nanochemistry and other nanoscience fields have the same core concepts but the usages of those concepts are different. The nano prefix was given to nanochemistry when scientists observed the odd changes on materials when they were in nanometer-scale size. Several chemical modification on nanometer scaled structures, approves effects of being size dependent. Nanochemistry can be characterized by concepts of size, shape, self-assembly, defects and bio-nano; So the synthesis of any new nano-construct is associated with all these concepts
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Chemistry
Chemistry
Chemistry
is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.[1][2] Chemistry
Chemistry
addresses topics such as how atoms and molecules interact via chemical bonds to form new chemical compounds. There are four types of chemical bonds: covalent bonds, in which compounds share one or more electron(s); ionic bonds, in which a compound donates one or more electrons to another compound to produce ions: cations and anions; hydrogen bonds; and Van der Waals force
Van der Waals force
bonds
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Scanning Probe Microscopy
Scanning probe microscope (SPM) is a branch of microscopy that forms images of surfaces using a physical probe that scans the specimen. SPM was founded in 1981, with the invention of the scanning tunneling microscope, an instrument for imaging surfaces at the atomic level. The first successful scanning tunneling microscope experiment was done by Binnig and Rohrer. The key to their success was using a feedback loop to regulate gap distance between the sample and the probe.[1] Many scanning probe microscopes can image several interactions simultaneously. The manner of using these interactions to obtain an image is generally called a mode. The resolution varies somewhat from technique to technique, but some probe techniques reach a rather impressive atomic resolution.[citation needed] This is due largely because piezoelectric actuators can execute motions with a precision and accuracy at the atomic level or better on electronic command
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Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography
Extreme ultraviolet lithography (also known as EUV or EUVL) is a next-generation lithography technology using an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelength, currently expected to be 13.5 nm. EUV is currently being developed for high volume use by 2020.[1][2][3][4]Contents1 Tool1.1 Resource requirements2 Light source power and throughput 3 EUV-specific optical issues3.1 H-V asymmetry 3.2 Asymmetries in sets of parallel lines 3.3 Pattern shift from defocus (non-telecentricity) 3.4 Line tip effects 3.5 Slit position dependence3.5.1 Aberrations across slit4 Enhancement opportunities for EUV patterning4.1 Assist features 4.2 Source-mask optimization4.2.1 Impact of aberrations4.3 Optimum illumination vs
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Contact Lithography
Contact lithography, also known as contact printing, is a form of photolithography whereby the image to be printed is obtained by illumination of a photomask in direct contact with a substrate coated with an imaging photoresist layer.Contents1 History 2 Operating principle 3 Types of contact masks 4 Resolution enhancements 5 Defect and Contamination Issues 6 ReferencesHistory[edit] The first integrated circuits had features of 200 micrometres which were printed using contact lithography. This technique was popular in the 1960s until it was substituted by proximity printing, where a gap is introduced between the photomask and the substrate. Proximity printing had poorer resolution than contact printing (due to the gap allowing more diffraction to occur) but generated far less defects. The resolution was sufficient for down to 2 micrometre production. In 1978, the step-and-repeat projection system appeared
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Scanning Probe Microscope
Scanning probe microscope (SPM) is a branch of microscopy that forms images of surfaces using a physical probe that scans the specimen. SPM was founded in 1981, with the invention of the scanning tunneling microscope, an instrument for imaging surfaces at the atomic level. The first successful scanning tunneling microscope experiment was done by Binnig and Rohrer. The key to their success was using a feedback loop to regulate gap distance between the sample and the probe.[1] Many scanning probe microscopes can image several interactions simultaneously. The manner of using these interactions to obtain an image is generally called a mode. The resolution varies somewhat from technique to technique, but some probe techniques reach a rather impressive atomic resolution.[citation needed] This is due largely because piezoelectric actuators can execute motions with a precision and accuracy at the atomic level or better on electronic command
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Nanoimprint Lithography
Nanoimprint lithography
Nanoimprint lithography
is a method of fabricating nanometer scale patterns. It is a simple nanolithography process with low cost, high throughput and high resolution. It creates patterns by mechanical deformation of imprint resist and subsequent processes. The imprint resist is typically a monomer or polymer formulation that is cured by heat or UV light during the imprinting
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Dip-pen Nanolithography
Dip pen
Dip pen
nanolithography (DPN) is a scanning probe lithography technique where an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip is used to create patterns directly on a range of substances with a variety of inks.[1] A common example of this technique is exemplified by the use of alkane thiolates to imprint onto a gold surface.[2] This technique allows surface patterning on scales of under 100 nanometers. DPN is the nanotechnology analog of the dip pen (also called the quill pen), where the tip of an atomic force microscope cantilever acts as a "pen," which is coated with a chemical compound or mixture acting as an "ink," and put in contact with a substrate, the "paper."[3] DPN enables direct deposition of nanoscale materials onto a substrate in a flexible manner
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Soft Lithography
In technology, soft lithography is a family of techniques for fabricating or replicating structures using "elastomeric stamps, molds, and conformable photomasks".[1] It is called "soft" because it uses elastomeric materials, most notably PDMS. Soft lithography
Soft lithography
is generally used to construct features measured on the micrometer to nanometer scale. According to Rogers and Nuzzo (2005), development of soft lithography expanded rapidly from 1995 to 2005
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Quantum Particles
In most theoretical physics such as quantum field theory, the energy that a particle has as a result of changes that it itself causes in its environment defines self-energy Σ displaystyle Sigma , and represents the contribution to the particle's energy, or effective mass, due to interactions between the particle and its system. In electrostatics, the energy required to assemble the charge distribution takes the form of self-energy by bringing in the constituent charges from infinity, where the electric force goes to zero. In a condensed matter context relevant to electrons moving in a material, the self-energy represents the potential felt by the electron due to the surrounding medium's interactions with it. Since electrons repel each other the moving electron polarizes, or causes to displace, the electrons in its vicinity and then changes the potential of the moving electron fields
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Oxidation
Redox
Redox
(short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: /ˈrɛdɒks/ redoks or /ˈriːdɒks/ reedoks[1]) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed. Any such reaction involves both a reduction process and a complementary oxidation process, two key concepts involved with electron transfer processes.[2] Redox
Redox
reactions include all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation state changed; in general, redox reactions involve the transfer of electrons between chemical species. The chemical species from which the electron is stripped is said to have been oxidized, while the chemical species to which the electron is added is said to have been reduced
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Self-assembled Monolayer
Self-assembled monolayers
Self-assembled monolayers
(SAM) of organic molecules are molecular assemblies formed spontaneously on surfaces by adsorption and are organized into more or less large ordered domains.[1][2] In some cases molecules that form the monolayer do not interact strongly with the substrate. This is the case for instance of the two-dimensional supramolecular networks[3] of e.g. perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) on gold[4] or of e.g. porphyrins on highly oriented pyrolitic graphite (HOPG).[5] In other cases the molecules possess a head group that has a strong affinity to the substrate and anchors the molecule to it.[1] Such a SAM consisting of a head group, tail and functional end group is depicted in Figure 1. Common head groups include thiols, silanes, phosphonates, etc.Figure 1
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Atomic Force Microscope
Atomic force microscopy
Atomic force microscopy
(AFM) or scanning force microscopy (SFM) is a very-high-resolution type of scanning probe microscopy (SPM), with demonstrated resolution on the order of fractions of a nanometer, more than 1000 times better than the optical diffraction limit.Contents1 Overview1.1 Abilities 1.2 Other microscopy technologies 1.3 Configuration1.3.1 Detector 1.3.2 Image formation1.4 History 1.5 Applications2 Principles2.1 Imaging modes2.1.1 Contact mo
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Electron-beam Lithography
Electron-beam lithography
Electron-beam lithography
(often abbreviated as e-beam lithography) is the practice of scanning a focused beam of electrons to draw custom shapes on a surface covered with an electron-sensitive film called a resist (exposing).[1] The electron beam changes the solubility of the resist, enabling selective removal of either the exposed or non-exposed regions of the resist by immersing it in a solvent (developing). The purpose, as with photolithography, is to create very small structures in the resist that can subsequently be transferred to the substrate material, often by etching. The primary advantage of electron-beam lithography is that it can draw custom patterns (direct-write) with sub-10 nm resolution
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Sunscreen
Sunscreen, also known as sunblock and suntan lotion, is a lotion, spray, gel or other topical product that absorbs or reflects some of the sun's ultraviolet (UV) radiation and thus helps protect against sunburn
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Zinc Oxide
Fume: TWA 5 mg/m3 ST 10 mg/m3[1] IDLH
IDLH
(Immediate danger)500 mg/m3[1]Related compoundsOther anions Zinc
Zinc
sulfide Zinc
Zinc
selenide Zinc
Zinc
tellurideOther cations Cadmium
Cadmium
oxide Mercury(II) oxideExcept where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).N verify (what is YN ?)Infobox references Zinc
Zinc
oxide is an inorganic compound with the formula ZnO. ZnO is a white powder that is insoluble in water, and it is widely used as an additive in numerous materials and products including rubbers, plastics, ceramics, glass, cement, lubricants,[5] paints, ointments, adhesives, sealants, pigments, foods, batteries, ferrites, fire retardants, and first-aid tapes
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