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Nanjing Higher Normal School
NANJING UNIVERSITY (NJU or NU, simplified Chinese : 南京大学; traditional Chinese : 南京大學; pinyin : Nánjīng Dàxué, Nánkīng Tàhsüéh. Chinese abbr. 南大; pinyin: Nándà, NANDA), or NANKING UNIVERSITY, located in Nanjing
Nanjing
, China
China
, is one of the oldest and most prestigious institutions of higher learning in China. Following many changes through dynasties since CE 258, it was established as a modern school in 1902 in late Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
, and became a modern university in the early 1920s, the early years of Republic of China
China
, being the first Chinese modern university with the combination of education and research, and also as a pioneer laying the foundations for the establishment of the modern educational system in China
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Han Dynasty
Coordinates : 34°09′21″N 108°56′47″E / 34.15583°N 108.94639°E / 34.15583; 108.94639 Han dynasty 漢朝 206 BC – 220 AD A map of the Western Han Dynasty in 2 AD: 1) the territory shaded in dark blue represents the principalities and centrally-administered commanderies of the Han Empire; 2) the light blue area shows the extent of the Tarim Basin protectorate of the Western Regions
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Yu The Great
YU THE GREAT (c. 2200 – 2101 BC) was a ruler in ancient China famed for his introduction of flood control , inaugurating dynastic rule in China by founding the Xia Dynasty , and for his upright moral character. The dates proposed for Yu's reign predate the oldest known written records in China, the oracle bones of the late Shang dynasty
Shang dynasty
, by nearly a millennium. No inscriptions on artifacts from the proposed era of Yu, nor the later oracle bones, make any mention of Yu; he does not appear in inscriptions until vessels dating to the Western Zhou period (c. 1045–771 BC). The lack of anything remotely close to contemporary documentary evidence has led to some controversy over the historicity of Yu
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Former Song Dynasty
Myanmar
Myanmar
THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS CHINESE TEXT. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Chinese characters .The LIU SONG DYNASTY (simplified Chinese : 刘宋朝; traditional Chinese : 劉宋朝; pinyin : Liú Sòng Cháo; Wade-Giles : Liu Sung Ch'ao), also known as FORMER SONG (前宋) (420-479 CE), was first of the four Southern Dynasties in China
China
, succeeding the Eastern Jin and followed by the Southern Qi . The dynasty was founded by Liu Yu (劉裕) (363–422), whose surname together with "Song" forms the most commonly used name for the dynasty, the LIU SONG . This appellation is used to distinguish it from a later dynasty of the same name, the Song dynasty (960–1279, whose ruling family was Zhao), which is better known and more significant
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Confucianism
HERMENEUTIC SCHOOLS: * Old Texts
Old Texts
* New Text Confucianism Confucianism
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Xuan Study
XUANXUE (simplified Chinese : 玄学; traditional Chinese : 玄學; pinyin : Xuánxué; Wade–Giles : Hsüan-hsüeh; literally: "mysterious learning"), NEO-TAOISM, or NEO-DAOISM was the focal school of thought in Chinese philosophy
Chinese philosophy
from the third to sixth century CE. Xuanxue philosophers combined elements of Confucianism
Confucianism
and Taoism
Taoism
to reinterpret the Yijing
Yijing
, Daodejing , and Zhuangzi . The name compounds xuan 玄 "black, dark; mysterious, profound, abstruse, arcane," occurs in the first chapter of the Lao-tzu . Xue 學 "study, learn, learning," literally the "learning" or "study" of the "arcane," "mysterious," or "profound." In Modern Standard Chinese usage, xuanxue can mean "neo-Daoism," "Buddhism," "metaphysics," "spiritualism," or "mysticism"
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Shang Xiang
SHANG XIANG (Chinese : 上庠; pinyin : shàng xiáng; Wade–Giles : SHANG HSIANG), was a school founded in the Yu Shun (虞舜) era in China
China
. Shun (2257 BCE–2208 BCE), the Emperor of the Kingdom of Yu (虞, or 有虞/Youyu), founded two schools. One was Shang Xiang (shang (上), means up, high), and the other one was Xia Xiang (下庠, xia (下) means down, low). Shang Xiang was a place to educate noble youth. Teachers at Shang Xiang were generally erudite, elder and noble persons. The original meaning of Xiang (庠) is provide for (養), and Xiang, including Shang Xiang and Xia Xiang, were initially places to provide for the aged persons, and then became places for aged persons with their knowledge and experiences to teach youth
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Qinhuai River
The QINHUAI RIVER (秦淮河) is a tributary river of Yangtze
Yangtze
River with a total length of 110 km. It runs through central Nanjing
Nanjing
and is the birthplace of the traditional Nanjing
Nanjing
culture. As such, it's called "Nanjing's mother river". It is the "life blood" of the city. The Qinhuai River
Qinhuai River
is divided into inner and outer rivers. Today, the scenic belt along the Qinhuai River
Qinhuai River
develops with the Confucius Temple at the center and the river serving as a bond. The belt featuring attractions like Zhanyuan Garden , the Confucius Temple , Egret Islet, China Gate as well as the sailing boats in the river and pavilions and towers on the riverbanks is a blend of historic sites, gardens, barges, streets, pavilions, towers and folk culture and customs
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Confucian
HERMENEUTIC SCHOOLS: * Old Texts * New Text Confucianism Confucianism
Confucianism
by country * Confucianism in Indonesia * <
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Six Arts
The SIX ARTS formed the basis of education in ancient Chinese culture . During the Zhou Dynasty
Zhou Dynasty
(1122–256 BCE), students were required to master the "liù yì" (六藝) (Six Arts): * Rites (禮) * Music (樂) * Archery
Archery
(射) * Charioteering (御) * Calligraphy (書) * Mathematics (數)Men who excelled in these six arts were thought to have reached the state of perfection, a perfect gentleman . The Six Arts where practiced by scholars and they already existed before Confucius, but became a part of Confucian philosophy . As such, Xu Gan (170–217 CE) discusses them in the Balanced Discourses. The Six Arts were practiced by the 72 disciples of Confucius . The Six Arts concept developed during the pre-imperial period. It incorporated both military and civil components
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Wei Zhao (Three Kingdoms)
WEI ZHAO (204–273), courtesy name HONGSI, was an official, historian and scholar of the state of Eastern Wu during the Three Kingdoms period of China. He shared the same personal name as Sima Zhao (an ancestor of the Jin dynasty emperors) so, in order to avoid naming taboo , the historian Chen Shou changed Wei Zhao's personal name to "Yao" when he wrote Wei Zhao's biography in the Sanguozhi (the authoritative source for the history of the Three Kingdoms period). LIFEWei Zhao was appointed as the first Erudite Libationer (博士祭酒; i.e. President) of the Imperial Nanking University by the third Wu emperor, Sun Xiu , in 258. He was the chief editor of the Book of Wu, an official history of Wu
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Fuzimiao
NANJING FUZIMIAO (Chinese : 南京夫子廟) or FUZIMIAO (Chinese: 夫子廟; literally: "Confucian Temple "), is located in southern Nanjing City on banks of the Qinhuai River . Within the area are cultural attractions, arts, shopping, and entertainment. HISTORYIn first year of Jianwu reign of Jin Dynasty (CE 317), Nanking Imperial University was founded, initially on northern bank of Qinhuai River , and in the 3rd year of Xiankang (CE 337) the campus extended to southern bank. Temple of Confucius was firstly constructed in the national school in the 9th year of Taiyuan (CE 384). The place was later destroyed. In the 1st year of Jingyou during Song Dynasty (CE 1034), Confucius Temple was newly constructed on former site of imperial university, and was called Fuzimiao area along with Nanking Fuxue. The place became Imperial University again in 1365 in the early year of Ming Dynasty , and sixteen years later recovered to be the campus of Fuxue
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School Of Naturalists
The SCHOOL OF NATURALISTS or the SCHOOL OF YIN-YANG (陰陽家/阴阳家; Yīnyángjiā; Yin-yang-chia; "School of Yin-Yang") was a Warring States
Warring States
era philosophy that synthesized the concepts of yin-yang and the Five Elements ; Zou Yan is considered the founder of this school. His theory attempted to explain the universe in terms of basic forces in nature: the complementary agents of yin (dark, cold, female, negative) and yang (light, hot, male, positive) and the Five Elements or Five Phases (water, fire, wood, metal, and earth). In its early days, this theory was most strongly associated with the states of Yan and Qi . In later periods, these epistemological theories came to hold significance in both philosophy and popular belief. This school was absorbed into the alchemic and magical dimensions of Taoism
Taoism
as well as into the Chinese medical framework
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Drum Tower Of Nanjing
The DRUM TOWER OF NANJING (Chinese : 南京鼓楼) on Gulou Mountain in Gulou District of Nanjing
Nanjing
, China
China
was first built in the 15th year of the reign of Hongwu , of the Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
(1382 AD). The Drum Tower, which is an important part of Drum Tower Park, lies on the Purple Mountain
Purple Mountain
. It is 44 meters long, 22 meters wide and 30 meters high. Its shape is like a Chinese traditional city gate, with a square foundation pedestal made of stone. In the pedestal, there are three arch gateways, one larger in the middle and two smaller on the side. In the side gateways, there are four side-rooms, which were guarded by the imperial drumming officers with hundreds of soldiers during the ancient dynasty
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Zhong Rong
ZHONG RONG (鍾嶸) (approximately 468 A.D. - 518 A.D.) was a leading scholar in Chinese traditional poetics, who lived in Northern and Southern Dynasties (420 A.D.-589 A.D.) His representative writing was "Shi Ping" (《詩評》, Review of Poetry) which was renamed as《詩品》("Shi Pin ", Tastes of poetry) in Northern Song Dynasty . This thin book is the first one that we have found so far which aims to mark or taste Chinese poets and their poetry. Its introduction or preface presents a profound poetic theory. In the beginning, it tried to define what is poetry and connected it with Daoist\'s main concept "Qi "(“气”)
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Emperor Gao Of Southern Qi
EMPEROR GAO OF SOUTHERN QI ((南)齊高帝; 427–482), personal name XIAO DAOCHENG (蕭道成), courtesy name SHAOBO (紹伯), nickname DOUJIANG (鬥將)) was the founding emperor of the Chinese dynasty Southern Qi
Southern Qi
. He served as a general under the preceding dynasty Liu Song 's Emperor Ming and Emperor Houfei . In 477, fearful that the young, cruel Emperor Houfei would kill him, assassinated Emperor Houfei and seized power, eventually taking the throne in 479 to start Southern Qi. CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Under Emperor Ming of Liu Song * 3 Under Emperor Houfei of Liu Song * 4 Under Emperor Shun of Liu Song * 5 Reign * 6 Era name * 7 Personal information * 8 References BACKGROUNDXiao Daocheng was born in 427. His ancestors traced their line to the famed Han Dynasty
Dynasty
prime minister Xiao He
Xiao He

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