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Nakhodka
Nakhodka
Nakhodka
(Russian: Находка, IPA: [nɐˈxotkə]) is a port city in Primorsky Krai, Russia, located on the Trudny Peninsula jutting into the Nakhodka Bay
Nakhodka Bay
of the Sea of Japan, about 85 kilometers (53 mi) east of Vladivostok, the administrative center of the krai. Population: 159,719 (2010 Census);[3] 148,826 (2002 Census);[6] 160,056 (1989 Census).[7]Contents1 History 2 Administrative and municipal status 3 Climate 4 Economy and infrastructure 5 Sports 6 Twin towns and sister cities 7 References7.1 Notes 7.2 Sources8 External linksHistory[edit] The Nakhodka
Nakhodka
Bay, around which the city is organized, was found in 1859 by the Russian corvette Amerika, which sought shelter in the bay during a storm
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Twin Towns And Sister Cities
Twin towns or sister cities are a form of legal or social agreement between towns, cities, counties, oblasts, prefectures, provinces, regions, states, and even countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.[1] The modern concept of town twinning, conceived after the Second World War
Second World War
in 1947, was intended to foster friendship and understanding between different cultures and between former foes as an act of peace and reconciliation,[2][3] and to encourage trade and tourism.[1] By the 2000s, town twinning became increasingly used to form strategic international business links between member
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Moscow
Moscow
Moscow
(/ˈmɒskoʊ, -kaʊ/; Russian: Москва́, tr. Moskva, IPA: [mɐˈskva] ( listen)) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 12.2 million residents within the city limits[11] and 17.1 million within the urban area.[12] Moscow
Moscow
is recognized as a Russian federal city. Moscow
Moscow
is a major political, economic, cultural, and scientific centre of Russia
Russia
and Eastern Europe, as well as the largest city entirely on the European continent. By broader definitions Moscow
Moscow
is among the world's largest cities, being the 14th largest metro area, the 18th largest agglomeration, the 15th largest urban area, and the 11th largest by population within city limits worldwide
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Krai
A krai or kray (Russian: край, plural: края́, kraya) was a type of geographical administrative division in the Russian Empire and in the Russian SFSR,[citation needed] and it is one of the types of the federal subjects of modern Russia. Etymologically, the word is related to the verb "кроить" (kroit'), "to cut".[1] Historically, krais comprised vast territories located along the periphery of the Russian state, since the word krai also means border or edge, i.e., a place of the cut-off. In English the term is often translated as "territory"
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Russian Census (2002)
The Russian Census
Census
of 2002 (Russian: Всеросси́йская пе́репись населе́ния 2002 го́да) was the first census of the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, carried out on October 9 through October 16, 2002. It was carried out by the Russian Federal Service of State Statistics (Rosstat).Contents1 Data collection1.1 Resident population 1.2 Non-residents2 Census
Census
results2.1 Citizenship 2.2 Language abilities3 See also 4 External linksData collection[edit] The census data were collected as of midnight October 9, 2002. Resident population[edit] The census was primarily intended to collect statistical information about the resident population of Russian Federation
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Soviet Census (1989)
The 1989 Soviet census (Russian: Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989, "1989 All-Union Census"), conducted between 12-19 January of that year, was the last one that took place in the former USSR. The census found the total population to be 286,730,819 inhabitants.[1] In 1989, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
ranked as the third most populous in the world, above the United States
United States
(with 248,709,873 inhabitants according to the 1 April 1990 census), although it was well behind China
China
and India.Contents1 Statistics 2 SSR Rankings 3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksStatistics[edit] In 1989, about half of the Soviet Union's total population lived in the Russian SFSR, and approximately one-sixth (18%) of them in Ukraine
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Types Of Inhabited Localities In Russia
The classification system of the types of inhabited localities in Russia, the former Soviet Union, and some other post-Soviet states has certain peculiarities compared with the classification systems in other countries.[citation needed]Contents1 Modern classification in Russia1.1 Urban localities 1.2 Rural localities2 Historical terms 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksModern classification in Russia[edit] During the Soviet time, each of the republics of the Soviet Union, including the Russian SFSR, had its own legislative documents dealing with classification of inhabited localities.[1] After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the task of developing and maintaining such classification in Russia
Russia
was delegated to the federal subjects.[2] While currently there are certain peculiarities to classifications used in many federal subjects, they are all still largely based on the system used in the RSFSR
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Whaling
Whaling
Whaling
is the hunting of whales for scientific research and their usable products like meat, oil and blubber. Its earliest forms date to at least circa 3000 BC.[1] Various coastal communities have long histories of subsistence whaling and harvesting beached whales. Industrial whaling emerged with organized fleets in the 17th century; competitive national whaling industries in the 18th and 19th centuries; and the introduction of factory ships along with the concept of whale harvesting in the first half of the 20th century. By the late 1930s more than 50,000 whales were killed annually[2] In 1986, the International Whaling Commission
International Whaling Commission
(IWC) banned commercial whaling because of the extreme depletion of most of the whale stocks.[3] Contemporary whaling is subject to intense debate
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Schooner
A schooner /ˈskuːnər/ is a type of sailing vessel with fore-and-aft sails on two or more masts. The most common type has two masts, the foremast being shorter than the main. While the schooner was originally gaff-rigged, modern schooners typically carry a Bermuda rig.Contents1 Etymology 2 History 3 Usage 4 Schooner
Schooner
sail plan4.1 Schooner
Schooner
rationale5 Multi-masted schooners 6 Famous schooners 7 Gallery 8 See also 9 References 10 External linksEtymology[edit]Rig of topsail schooner Shenandoah at anchor without sailsThe first detailed definition of a schooner, describing the vessel as two-masted vessel with fore and aft gaff-rigged sails appeared in 1769 in William Falconer's, Universal Dictionary of the Marine.[1] According to the language scholar Walter William Skeat, the term schooner comes from scoon, while the sch spelling comes from the later adoption of the Dutch spelling ("schoener")
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Gray Whale
The gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus),[1] also known as the grey whale,[3] gray back whale, Pacific gray whale, or California gray whale[4] is a baleen whale that migrates between feeding and breeding grounds yearly. It reaches a length of 14.9 meters (49 ft), a weight of 36 tonnes (40 short tons), and lives between 55 and 70 years.[5] The common name of the whale comes from the gray patches and white mottling on its dark skin.[6] Gray whales were once called devil fish because of their fighting behavior when hunted.[7] The gray whale is the sole living species in the genus Eschrichtius, which in turn is the sole living genus in the family Eschrichtiidae. This mammal descended from filter-feeding whales that appeared at the beginning of the Oligocene, over 30 million years ago. The gray whale is distributed in an eastern North Pacific (North American) population and a critically endangered western North Pacific (Asian) population
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1998 Russian Financial Crisis
The Russian financial crisis (also called Ruble crisis or the Russian Flu) hit Russia
Russia
on 17 August 1998. It resulted in the Russian government and the Russian Central Bank
Russian Central Bank
devaluing the ruble and defaulting on its debt. The crisis had severe impacts on the economies of many neighboring countries. Meanwhile, James Cook, the senior vice president of The U.S
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Urban-type Settlement
Urban-type settlement (Russian: посёлок городско́го ти́па - posyolok gorodskogo tipa, abbreviated: п.г.т. - p.g.t.; Ukrainian: селище міського типу – selyshche mis'koho typu, abbreviated: с.м.т
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Free Economic Zone
Free economic zones (FEZ), free economic territories (FETs) or free zones (FZ) are a class of special economic zone (SEZ) designated by the trade and commerce administrations of various countries. The term is used to designate areas in which companies are taxed very lightly or not at all to encourage economic activity. The taxation rules are determined by each country. The World Trade Organization
World Trade Organization
(WTO) Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures (SCM) has content on the conditions and benefits of free zones. Some special economic zones are called free ports. Sometimes they have historically been endowed with favorable customs regulations such as the free port of Trieste
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Humid Continental Climate
A humid continental climate (Köppen prefix D and a third letter of a or b) is a climatic region defined by Russo-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen
Wladimir Köppen
in 1900,[1] which is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold) winters. Precipitation is usually well distributed through the year. The definition of this climate regarding temperature is as follows: the mean temperature of the coldest month must be below −3 °C (26.6 °F) and there must be at least four months whose mean temperatures are at or above 10 °C (50 °F). Some climatologists prefer to use the 0 °C isotherm as it is more commonly used. In addition, the location in question must not be semi-arid or arid
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Diurnal Temperature Variation
In meteorology, diurnal temperature variation is the variation between a high temperature and a low temperature that occurs during the same day.Contents1 Temperature lag 2 Differences in variation 3 Viticulture 4 See also 5 ReferencesTemperature lag[edit] Temperature lag is an important factor in diurnal temperature variation: peak daily temperature generally occurs after noon, as air keeps net absorbing heat even after noon, and similarly minimum daily temperature generally occurs substantially after midnight, indeed occurring during early morning in the hour around dawn, since heat is lost all night long. The analogous annual phenomenon is seasonal lag. As solar energy strikes the earth’s surface each morning, a shallow 1–3-centimetre (0.39–1.18 in) layer of air directly above the ground is heated by conduction. Heat exchange between this shallow layer of warm air and the cooler air above is very inefficient
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Seasonal Lag
Seasonal lag
Seasonal lag
is the phenomenon whereby the date of maximum average air temperature at a geographical location on a planet is delayed until some time after the date of maximum insolation. This also applies to the minimum temperature being delayed until some time after the date of minimum insolation. An analogous temperature lag phenomenon occurs in diurnal temperature variation, where maximum daily temperature occurs after noon (maximum insolation). Seasonal lag
Seasonal lag
on Earth[edit]The amount of Sun energy reaching a location on Earth ("insolation", shown in blue) varies through the seasons. As it takes time for the seas and lands to heat or cool, the surface temperatures will lag the primary cycle by roughly a month, although this will vary from location to location, and the lag is not necessarily symmetric between summer and winter
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