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Nahapana
Nahapana
Nahapana
(r. 1st or 2nd century CE) was an important ruler of the Western Kshatrapas, descendant of the Indo-Scythians, in northwestern India. According to one of his coins, he was the son of Bhumaka.Contents1 Period 2 Reign2.1 Gautamiputra Satakarni 2.2 Construction of Buddhist caves3 References3.1 Bibliography4 External linksPeriod[edit] The exact period of Nahapana
Nahapana
is not certain. A group of his inscriptions are dated to the years 41-46 of an unspecified era. Assuming that this era is the Shaka era
Shaka era
(which starts in 78 CE), some scholars have assigned his reign to 119-124 CE.[1] Others believe that the years 41-46 are his regnal years, and assign his rule to a different period. For example, Krishna Chandra Sagar assigns his reign to 24-70 CE,[2] while R.C.C. Fynes dates it to c. 66-71 CE.[3] Reign[edit]A coin of a silver drachma from Nahapana
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Govardhan Hill
Govardhana Hill (Devanagari: गोवर्धन), also called Mount Govardhana, Giri Raj and Royal Hill, is a sacred Hindu site in the Mathura district
Mathura district
of Uttar Pradesh, India
India
on a 8km long hill located in the area of Govardhan
Govardhan
and Radha
Radha
Kund,[1][2] which is about 20 kilometres (12 mi) from Vrindavan.[3] Known as Govardhan
Govardhan
or Giriraj it is the sacred center of Braj
Braj
and is identified as a natural form of the Lord Krishna
Krishna
himself (Govardhana sila).[4][5]Contents1 Etymology 2 Geography 3 Background 4 Sites 5 Legends5.1 The lifting of Govardhan6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External linksEtymology[edit] The name 'Govardhana' has two primary translations
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Tirtha (Hinduism)
ArtsBharatanatyam Kathak Kathakali Kuchipudi Manipuri Mohiniyattam Odissi Sattriya Bhagavata Mela Yakshagana Dandiya Raas Carnatic musicRites of passageGarbhadhana Pumsavana Simantonayana Jatakarma Namakarana Nishkramana Annaprashana Chudakarana Karnavedha Vidyarambha Upanayana Keshanta Ritushuddhi Samavartana Vivaha AntyeshtiAshrama DharmaAshrama: Brahmacharya Grihastha Vanaprastha SannyasaFestivalsDiwali Holi Shivaratri Navaratri Durga
Durga
Puja Ramlila Vijayadashami-Dussehra


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James Burgess (archaeologist)
James Burgess CIE FRSE
FRSE
FRGS MRAS LLD (1832[1] – October 1916), was the founder of The Indian Antiquary
The Indian Antiquary
in 1872[2] and an important archaeologist of India in the nineteenth century.Contents1 Life 2 Selected publications 3 References 4 External linksLife[edit]22 Seton Place, EdinburghBurgess was born on 14 August 1832 in Kirkmahoe, Dumfriesshire. He was educated at Dumfries and then Glasgow University
Glasgow University
and Edinburgh University.[3] He did educational work in Calcutta, 1856 and Bombay, 1861, and was Secretary of the Bombay
Bombay
Geographical Society 1868-73. He was Head of the Archaeological Survey, Western India, 1873, and of South India, 1881
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Thane
Thane, colloquially called Thana, is a metropolitan city in India. Thane
Thane
city coincides entirely with Thane
Thane
taluka, one of the seven talukas of Thane
Thane
district; also, it is the headquarter of the namesake district
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Sopara
Nala Sopara, associated with Shurparaka (lit. city of braves; Śūrpāraka) and formerly known as Sopara, is a town within the Mumbai
Mumbai
Metropolitan Region. The town lies in the Palghar district
Palghar district
of Maharashtra. The population of the city was 184,664 during the 2001 census. It also has railway station on the Western Railway Zone, approximately 35 km from Mumbai. It is governed by the Vasai-Virar Municipal Corporation
Vasai-Virar Municipal Corporation
(VVMC). Nala Sopara
Nala Sopara
is accepted by scholars as the Suparaka or Supparak of ancient India and was a busy trade centre and an important seal of Buddhism
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Prakrit
The Prakrits (Sanskrit: प्राकृती prākṛta, Shauraseni: pāuda, Jain Prakrit: pāua) are any of several Middle Indo-Aryan languages.[2][3] The Ardhamagadhi (or simply Magadhi) Prakrit, which was used extensively to write the scriptures of Jainism, is often considered to be the definitive form of Prakrit, while others are considered variants thereof. Prakrit
Prakrit
grammarians would give the full grammar of Ardhamagadhi first, and then define the other grammars with relation to it
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Malva
About 25–30; see text.Synonyms[1]Axolopha (DC.) Alef. Dinacrusa G.Krebs Malva
Malva
sylvestris Malva
Malva
is a genus of about 25–30 species of herbaceous annual, biennial, and perennial plants in the family Malvaceae
Malvaceae
(of which it is the type genus), one of several closely related genera in the family to bear the common English name mallow. The genus is widespread throughout the temperate, subtropical and tropical regions of Africa, Asia
Asia
and Europe.[3] The leaves are alternate, palmately lobed
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Mandasor
Mandsaur
Mandsaur
or Mandsour is a city in the Malwa
Malwa
region and district of Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
state of central India. It is the administrative headquarters of Mandsaur
Mandsaur
District. Mandsaur
Mandsaur
is rich in archaeological and historical heritage But what makes it famous is the temple of Lord Pashupatinath located on the bank of Shivna river. Its idol has parallel only in Nepal.[1] The most common language is Malvi (Rajasthani and Hindi Mixed).It is also famous for large production of Opium
Opium
around the world
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Maharashtra
Maharashtra
Maharashtra
(/mɑːhəˈrɑːʃtrə/; Marathi: [məharaːʂʈrə] ( listen), abbr. MH) is a state in the western region of India
India
and is India's second-most populous state and third-largest state by area. Spread over 307,713 km2 (118,809 sq mi), it is bordered by the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
to the west and the Indian states of Karnataka, Telangana, Goa, Gujarat, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
and the Union territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli. It is also the world's second-most populous subnational entity
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Gujarat
†The state of Bombay was divided into two states i.e. Maharashtra and Gujarat
Gujarat
by the Bombay (Reorganisation) Act 1960Symbols of Gujarat[4](de facto)Language Gujarati[3]Song "Jai Jai Garavi Gujarat" by Narmad[5]Calendar SakaAnimal Asiatic lion[4]Bird Greater flamingo[4]Flower Marigold (galgota)[4]Fruit Mango[6]Tree Banyan[4] Gujarat
Gujarat
(/ˌɡʊdʒəˈrɑːt/ Gujarat  ['gudʒəɾɑt̪] ( listen)) is a state in Western India[3][7][8][9][10] and Northwest India[11][12][13][14] with an area of 196,024 km2 (75,685 sq mi), a coastline of 1,600 km (990 mi)–most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula, and a population in excess of 60 million
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Kharoshthi
Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
32 c. BCE Hieratic
Hieratic
32 c. BCEDemotic 7 c. BCEMeroitic 3 c. BCEProto-Sinaitic 19 c. BCEUgaritic 15 c. BCE Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCEGe’ez 5–6 c. BCEPhoenician 12 c. BCEPaleo-Hebrew 10 c. BCESamaritan 6 c. BCE Libyco-Berber
Libyco-Berber
3 c. BCETifinaghPaleohispanic (semi-syllabic) 7 c. BCE Aramaic 8 c. BCE Kharoṣṭhī
Kharoṣṭhī
4 c. BCE Brāhmī 4 c. BCE Brahmic family
Brahmic family
(see)E.g. Tibetan 7 c. CE Devanagari
Devanagari
13 c. CECanadian syllabics 1840Hebrew 3 c. BCE Pahlavi 3 c. BCEAvestan 4 c. CEPalmyrene 2 c. BCE Syriac 2 c. BCENabataean 2 c. BCEArabic 4 c. CEN'Ko 1949 CESogdian 2 c. BCEOrkhon (old Turkic) 6 c. CEOld Hungarian c. 650 CEOld UyghurMongolian 1204 CEMandaic 2 c. CEGreek 8 c. BCEEtruscan 8 c. BCELatin 7 c
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Brāhmī Script
Brahmi (IAST: Brāhmī) is the modern name given to one of the oldest writing systems used in Ancient India
Ancient India
and present South and Central Asia from the 1st millennium BCE.[2] Brahmi is an abugida that thrived in the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
and uses a system of diacritical marks to associate vowels with consonant symbols. It evolved into a host of other scripts that continue in use.[3][4][5] Brahmi is related to the ancient Kharoṣṭhī
Kharoṣṭhī
script, which was used in what is now eastern Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Pakistan. Kharoṣṭhī
Kharoṣṭhī
died out in ancient times.[6] The best-known Brahmi inscriptions are the rock-cut edicts of Ashoka in north-central India, dating to 250–232 BCE
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Chaitya
A chaitya, chaitya hall, chaitya-griha, or caitya refers to a shrine, sanctuary, temple or prayer hall in Indian religions.[1][2] The term is most common in Buddhism, where it includes a stupa at one end.[3] Strictly, the chaitya is actually the stupa itself,[4] and the Indian buildings are chaitya halls, but this distinction is often not observed. Outside India, the term is used by Buddhists for local styles of small stupa-like monuments in Nepal, Cambodia, Indonesia
Indonesia
and elsewhere. In the historical texts of Jainism
Jainism
and Hinduism, including those relating to architecture, chaitya refers to a temple, sanctuary or any sacred monument.[5][6][7] Most early examples of chaitya that survive are Indian rock-cut architecture, but it is agreed that the standard form follows a tradition of free-standing halls made of wood and other plant materials, none of which have survived
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South Asia
South
South
Asia
Asia
or Southern Asia
Asia
(also known as Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC
SAARC
countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east. Topographically, it is dominated by the Indian Plate, which rises above sea level as Nepal
Nepal
and all parts of India
India
situated south of the Himalayas
Himalayas
and the Hindu
Hindu
Kush
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Minnagara
Minnagara
Minnagara
was an ancient port located in what is now the modern city of Karachi, in the Sindh
Sindh
province of Pakistan. Minnagara
Minnagara
was a city of the Indo-Scythian
Indo-Scythian
kingdom, located on the Indus
Indus
river in modern Pakistan, north of the coastal city of Barbaricum, or along the Narmada river, upstream of Barigaza
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