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NTLM
In a Windows network, NT LAN Manager (NTLM) is a suite of Microsoft security protocols that provides authentication, integrity, and confidentiality to users.[1][2][3] NTLM is the successor to the authentication protocol in Microsoft
Microsoft
LAN Manager (LANMAN), an older Microsoft
Microsoft
product. The NTLM protocol suite is implemented in a Security Support Provider, which combines the LAN Manager authentication protocol, NTLMv1, NTLMv2 and NTLM2 Session protocols in a single package. Whether these protocols are used or can be used on a system is governed by Group Policy
Group Policy
settings, for which different versions of Windows have different default settings
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Microsoft Windows
Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft. Each family caters to a certain sector of the computing industry. Active Windows families include Windows NT
Windows NT
and Windows Embedded; these may encompass subfamilies, e.g. Windows Embedded
Windows Embedded
Compact (Windows CE) or Windows Server
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MD5
A 2013 attack by Xie Tao, Fanbao Liu, and Dengguo Feng breaks MD5 collision resistance in 218 time. This attack runs in less than a second on a regular computer.[2] MD5
MD5
is prone to length extension attacks.The MD5
MD5
algorithm is a widely used hash function producing a 128-bit hash value. Although MD5
MD5
was initially designed to be used as a cryptographic hash function, it has been found to suffer from extensive vulnerabilities. It can still be used as a checksum to verify data integrity, but only against unintentional corruption. Like most hash functions, MD5
MD5
is neither encryption nor encoding
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Linux
Linux
Linux
(/ˈlɪnəks/ ( listen) LIN-əks)[9][10] is a family of free and open-source software operating systems built around the Linux
Linux
kernel. Typically, Linux
Linux
is packaged in a form known as a Linux distribution (or distro for short) for both desktop and server use. The defining component of a Linux distribution
Linux distribution
is the Linux kernel,[11] an operating system kernel first released on September 17, 1991, by Linus Torvalds.[12][13][14] Many Linux
Linux
distributions use the word "Linux" in their name
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Midgard (software)
Midgard
Midgard
is an open source persistent storage framework
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Challenge–response Authentication
In computer security, challenge–response authentication is a family of protocols in which one party presents a question ("challenge") and another party must provide a valid answer ("response") to be authenticated. The simplest example of a challenge–response protocol is password authentication, where the challenge is asking for the password and the valid response is the correct password. Clearly an adversary who can eavesdrop on a password authentication can then authenticate itself in the same way. One solution is to issue multiple passwords, each of them marked with an identifier. The verifier can ask for any of the passwords, and the prover must have that correct password for that identifier. Assuming that the passwords are chosen independently, an adversary who intercepts one challenge–response message pair has no clues to help with a different challenge at a different time. For example, when other communications security methods are unavailable, the U.S
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Pseudorandom Number Generator
A pseudorandom number generator (PRNG), also known as a deterministic random bit generator (DRBG),[1] is an algorithm for generating a sequence of numbers whose properties approximate the properties of sequences of random numbers. The PRNG-generated sequence is not truly random, because it is completely determined by an initial value, called the PRNG's seed (which may include truly random values). Although sequences that are closer to truly random can be generated using hardware random number generators, pseudorandom number generators are important in practice for their speed in number generation and their reproducibility.[2] PRNGs are central in applications such as simulations (e.g. for the Monte Carlo method), electronic games (e.g. for procedural generation), and cryptography
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Microsoft
Microsoft
Microsoft
Corporation (/ˈmaɪkrəˌsɒft/,[2][3] abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington. It develops, manufactures, licenses, supports and sells computer software, consumer electronics, personal computers, and services. Its best known software products are the Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows line of operating systems, the Microsoft Office
Microsoft Office
suite, and the Internet
Internet
Explorer and Edge web browsers. Its flagship hardware products are the Xbox
Xbox
video game consoles and the Microsoft
Microsoft
Surface lineup of touchscreen personal computers
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Metasploit
The Metasploit Project
Metasploit Project
is a computer security project that provides information about security vulnerabilities and aids in penetration testing and IDS signature development. Its best-known sub-project is the open source[2] Metasploit Framework, a tool for developing and executing exploit code against a remote target machine. Other important sub-projects include the Opcode Database, shellcode archive and related research. The Metasploit Project
Metasploit Project
is well known for its anti-forensic and evasion tools, some of which are built into the Metasploit Framework.Contents1 History 2 Metasploit Framework 3 Metasploit interfaces3.1 Metasploit Framework Edition 3.2 Metasploit Community Edition 3.3 Metasploit Express 3.4 Metasploit Pro 3.5 Armitage 3.6 Cobalt Strike4 Exploits 5 Payloads 6 Contributors 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External linksHistory[edit] Metasploit was created by
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Reflection Attack
In computer security, a reflection attack is a method of attacking a challenge-response authentication system that uses the same protocol in both directions. That is, the same challenge-response protocol is used by each side to authenticate the other side
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IP Address
An Internet Protocol
Internet Protocol
address (IP address) is a numerical label assigned to each device connected to a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol
Internet Protocol
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Samba
Samba
Samba
(Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈsɐ̃bɐ] ( listen)) is a Brazilian musical genre and dance style, with its roots in Africa via the West African slave trade and African religious traditions, particularly of Angola and the Congo, through the samba de roda genre of the northeastern Brazilian state
Brazilian state
of Bahia, from which it derived.[1] Although there were various forms of samba in Brazil
Brazil
with popular rhythms originated from drumming, samba as a music genre has its origins in Rio de Janeiro, the former capital of Brazil. Samba
Samba
is recognized around the world as a symbol of Brazil
Brazil
and the Brazilian Carnival
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Windows Server Domain
A Windows domain is a form of a computer network in which all user accounts, computers, printers and other security principals, are registered with a central database located on one or more clusters of central computers known as domain controllers. Authentication takes place on domain controllers. Each person who uses computers within a domain receives a unique user account that can then be assigned access to resources within the domain. Starting with Windows 2000, Active Directory is the Windows component in charge of maintaining that central database.[1] The concept of Windows domain is in contrast with that of a workgroup in which each computer maintains its own database of security principals.Contents1 Configuration1.1 Domain controller 1.2 Integration2 Active Directory 3 Workgroups 4 See also 5 NotesConfiguration[edit] Computers can connect to a domain via LAN, WAN or using a VPN connection
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Cross-site Scripting
Cross-site scripting (XSS) is a type of computer security vulnerability typically found in web applications. XSS enables attackers to inject client-side scripts into web pages viewed by other users. A cross-site scripting vulnerability may be used by attackers to bypass access controls such as the same-origin policy
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HMAC
In cryptography, an HMAC
HMAC
(sometimes disabbreviated as either keyed-hash message authentication code or hash-based message authentication code) is a specific type of message authentication code (MAC) involving a cryptographic hash function and a secret cryptographic key. It may be used to simultaneously verify both the data integrity and the authentication of a message, as with any MAC. Any cryptographic hash function, such as MD5
MD5
or SHA-1, may be used in the calculation of an HMAC; the resulting MAC algorithm is termed HMAC-X, where X is the hash function used (e.g. HMAC- MD5
MD5
or HMAC-SHA1). The cryptographic strength of the HMAC
HMAC
depends upon the cryptographic strength of the underlying hash function, the size of its hash output, and the size and quality of the key. HMAC
HMAC
generation uses two passes of hash computation
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Unicode
Unicode
Unicode
is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems. The latest version contains a repertoire of 136,755 characters covering 139 modern and historic scripts, as well as multiple symbol sets
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