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NKGB
The People's Commissariat for State Security (Russian: Народный комиссариат государственной безопасности) or NKGB, was the name of the Soviet secret police, intelligence and counter-intelligence force that existed from February 3, 1941 to July 20, 1941, and again from 1943 to 1946, before being renamed the Ministry for State Security (MGB).Contents1 Separate administration 2 N KGB
KGB
tasking 3 February 1941 organization 4 Changes 1941/1943 5 1943 organization 6 From commissariats to ministries 7 See also 8 Notes 9 ReferencesSeparate administration[edit] Changes in Soviet apparatus began in February 1941 with the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet decision. It started with Military Counterintelligence
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Russian Language
Russian (Russian: ру́сский язы́к, tr. rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language
East Slavic language
and an official language in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
and many minor or unrecognised territories throughout Eurasia
Eurasia
(particularly in Eastern Europe, the Baltics, the Caucasus, and Central Asia). It is an unofficial but widely spoken language in Latvia, Moldova, Ukraine
Ukraine
and to a lesser extent, the other post-Soviet states.[31][32] Russian belongs to the family of Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
and is one of the four living members of the East Slavic languages
Slavic languages
(which in turn is part of the larger Balto-Slavic branch)
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Gulag
The Gulag
Gulag
(Russian: ГУЛАГ, IPA: [ɡʊˈlak] ( listen); acronym of Glavnoye Upravleniye Lagerej, Main Camps' Administration or Chief Administration of [Corrective Labor] Camps) was the government agency in charge of the Soviet forced labor camp system that was created under Vladimir Lenin[1][2] and reached its peak during Joseph Stalin's rule from the 1930s to the 1950s. The term is also commonly used in English language to refer to any forced-labor camp in the Soviet Union, including camps that existed in post- Stalin
Stalin
times.[3][4] The camps housed a wide range of convicts, from petty criminals to political prisoners. Large numbers were convicted by simplified procedures, such as NKVD
NKVD
troikas and other instruments of extrajudicial punishment
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Lithuania
Coordinates: 55°N 24°E / 55°N 24°E / 55; 24 Lithuania
Lithuania
(/ˌlɪθjuˈeɪniə/ ( listen);[11] Lithuanian: Lietuva [lʲɪɛtʊˈvɐ]), officially the Republic
Republic
of Lithuania (Lithuanian: Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe. One of the three Baltic states, it is situated along the southeastern shore of the Baltic Sea, to the east of Sweden
Sweden
and Denmark. It is bordered by Latvia
Latvia
to the north, Belarus to the east and south, Poland
Poland
to the south, and Kaliningrad Oblast
Kaliningrad Oblast
(a Russian exclave) to the southwest. Lithuania
Lithuania
has an estimated population of 2.8 million people as of 2017[update], and its capital and largest city is Vilnius. Lithuanians
Lithuanians
are a Baltic people
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Estonia
Estonia
Estonia
(/ɛˈstoʊniə/ ( listen);[11][12] Estonian: Eesti [ˈeːsti]), officially the Republic
Republic
of Estonia
Estonia
(Estonian: Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.[13] It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland
Gulf of Finland
with Finland
Finland
on the other side, to the west by the Baltic Sea, to the south by Latvia
Latvia
(343 km), and to the east by Lake Peipus
Lake Peipus
and Russia
Russia
(338.6 km).[14] Across the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
lies Sweden
Sweden
in the west and Finland
Finland
in the north
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Poland
Coordinates: 52°N 20°E / 52°N 20°E / 52; 20 Republic
Republic
of Poland Rzeczpospolita
Rzeczpospolita
Polska  (
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Soviet Union
The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(Russian: Сове́тский Сою́з, tr. Sovétsky Soyúz, IPA: [sɐˈvʲɛt͡skʲɪj sɐˈjus] ( listen)), officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian: Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик, tr. Soyúz Sovétskikh Sotsialistícheskikh Respúblik, IPA: [sɐˈjus sɐˈvʲɛtskʲɪx sətsɨəlʲɪsˈtʲitɕɪskʲɪx rʲɪˈspublʲɪk] ( listen)), abbreviated as the USSR (Russian: СССР, tr. SSSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia
Eurasia
that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics,[a] its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow
Moscow
as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
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Bessarabia
Bessarabia
Bessarabia
(Romanian: Basarabia; Russian: Бессарабия, Bessarabiya; Turkish: Besarabya; Ukrainian: Бессара́бія, Bessarabiya; Bulgarian: Бесарабия, Besarabiya) is a historical region in Eastern Europe, bounded by the Dniester
Dniester
river on the east and the Prut
Prut
river on the west. Today Bessarabia
Bessarabia
is mostly (approx
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Bukovina
Bukovina
Bukovina
(Romanian: Bucovina; German: Bukowina/Buchenland; Polish: Bukowina; Hungarian: Bukovina, Ukrainian: Буковина Bukovyna; see also other languages) is a historical region in Central Europe,[1][2] divided between Romania
Romania
and Ukraine, located on the northern slopes of the central Eastern Carpathians and the adjoining plains. A region of Moldavia
Moldavia
during the Middle Ages, the territory of what became known as Bukovina
Bukovina
was, from 1774 to 1918, an administrative division of the Habsburg Monarchy, the Austrian Empire, and Austria-Hungary. After World War I, Romania
Romania
established its control over Bukovina
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Pavel Sudoplatov
Lieutenant General
Lieutenant General
Pavel Anatolyevich Sudoplatov (Russian: Пáвел Aнатóльевич Cудоплáтов; July 7, 1907 – September 26, 1996) was a member of the intelligence services of the Soviet Union who rose to the rank of lieutenant general.[1] He was involved in several famous episodes, including the assassination of Leon Trotsky, the Soviet espionage program which obtained information about the atomic bomb from the Manhattan Project, and Operation Scherhorn, a Soviet deception operation against the Germans in 1944
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Operation Barbarossa
Frontline strength (initial)3.8 million personnel[1][2] 3,350–3,795 tanks[3][1][4][5] 3,030–3,072 other AFVs[6][7] 2,770–5,369 aircraft[3][8] 7,200–23,435 artillery pieces[1][3][5] 17,081 mortars[5]Frontline strength (initial)2.6–2.9 million personnel[9][10][11] 11,000 tanks[12][13] 7,133–9,100 military aircraft[14][15][16]Casualties and lossesTotal military casualties: 1,000,000+BreakdownCasualties of 1941:According to German Army medical reports (including Army Norway):[17]186,452 killed 40,157 missing 655,179 wounded in action[a] 8,000 evacuated sick2,827 aircraft destroyed[18] 2,735 tanks destroyed[4][19] 104 assault guns destroyed[4][19]Other involved country losses 114,000+ casualties (at least 39,000 dead or missing)[b] 8,700 casualties[c] 5,000+ casualties[d]Total military casualties: 4,973,820BreakdownCasualties of 1941:Based on Soviet archives:[21]
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People's Commissariat
The Ministries of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(Russian: Министерства СССР) were the government ministries of the Soviet Union. After the Russian Revolution
Russian Revolution
of 1917 the previous bureaucratic apparatus of bourgeois ministers was replaced by People’s Commissariats (Russian: народных комиссариатов; Narkom), staffed by new employees drawn from workers and peasants.[1] On 15 March 1946 the people’s commissariats were transformed into ministries
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Ministry Of Internal Affairs
An interior ministry (sometimes ministry of internal affairs or ministry of home affairs) is a government ministry typically responsible for policing, emergency management, national security, registration, supervision of local governments, conduct of elections, public administration and immigration matters. The ministry is often headed by a minister of the interior, minister of internal affairs or a minister of home affairs. In some countries, matters relating to the maintenance of law and order and the administration of justice are the responsibility of a separate justice ministry. In some countries, policing and national security belong to a separate ministry (often titled "ministry of public order", "ministry of security" etc.), with the interior ministry being limited to control over local governments, public administration, elections etc
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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Bellona Publishing House
Bellona Publishing House (Polish: Wydawnictwo Bellona, formerly also Dom Wydawniczy Bellona) is a publishing house based in Warsaw, Poland. It specialises in books on military history. Among the authors collaborating with Bellona are professors Henryk Samsonowicz, Lech Wyszczelski and Tadeusz Panecki, but also Leszek Moczulski, Krzysztof Daukszewicz, Grzegorz Miecugow, Magdalena Kozak and other authors. Bellona issues more than 300 books yearly. It is also the publisher of Mówią Wieki, a monthly historical journal established in 1958. References[edit](in Polish) bellona.plThis Polish corporation or company article is a stub
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