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Nägeli
Carl Wilhelm von Nägeli[1][2][3] (26 or 27 March 1817 – 10 May 1891)[3][4][5] was a Swiss botanist. He studied cell division and pollination but became known as the man who discouraged Gregor Mendel from further work on genetics. He rejected natural selection as a mechanism of evolution, favouring orthogenesis driven by a supposed "inner perfecting principle".Contents1 Birth and education 2 Academic career 3 Contributions 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 External linksBirth and education[edit] Nägeli was born in Kilchberg near Zurich, where he studied medicine at the University of Zurich. From 1839, he studied botany under A. P. de Candolle at Geneva, and graduated with a botanical thesis at Zurich in 1840
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Kilchberg, Zurich
Kilchberg is a municipality in the district of Horgen
Horgen
in the canton of Zürich
Zürich
in Switzerland. Kilchberg is the site of a regional cemetery.Contents1 History 2 Geography 3 Demographics 4 Industry 5 Transport 6 Education6.1 Public schools 6.2 Private, publicly subsidised schools 6.3 Other private schools7 International relations 8 Famous residents 9 References 10 External linksHistory[edit] Kilchberg is first mentioned in 1248 as Hilchberch. In 1250 it was mentioned as Kilchperch.[3] It grew out of the mediaeval village of Bendlikon (first mentioned in 1250 as Benklinkon) where Kilchberg was just a section of the village. Its coat of arms is Azure a Quatrefoil Argent seeded Or.[4] Geography[edit] Kilchberg has an area of 2.6 km2 (1.0 sq mi)
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International Plant Names Index
The International Plant Names Index (IPNI) describes itself as "a database of the names and associated basic bibliographical details of seed plants, ferns and lycophytes." Coverage of plant names is best at the rank of species and genus.[2] It includes basic bibliographical details, associated with the names, and its goals include eliminating the need for repeated reference to primary sources for basic bibliographic information about plant names.[3][4] The IPNI also maintains a list of standardized author abbreviations. These were initially based on Brummitt & Powell (1992), but new names and abbreviations are constantly added.Contents1 Description 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksDescription[edit] IPNI is the product of a collaboration betwe
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Hugo Von Mohl
Hugo von Mohl
Hugo von Mohl
FFRS H FRSE
FRSE
(8 April 1805 – 1 April 1872) was a German botanist from Stuttgart. He was the first person to use the word "protoplasm".[1] Life[edit] He was a son of the Württemberg
Württemberg
statesman Benjamin Ferdinand von Mohl (1766–1845), the family being connected on both sides with the higher class of state officials of Württemberg. While a pupil at the gymnasium he pursued botany and mineralogy in his leisure time, till in 1823 he entered the University of Tübingen. After graduating with distinction in medicine he went to Munich, where he met a distinguished circle of botanists, and found ample material for research. This seems to have determined his career as a botanist, and he started in 1828 those anatomical investigations which continued till his death. In 1832 he was appointed professor of botany in Tübingen, a post which he never left
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Protoplasm
Protoplasm is the living content of a cell that is surrounded by a plasma membrane. In some definitions, it is a general term for the cytoplasm (e.g., Mohl, 1846),[1] but for others, it also includes the nucleoplasm (e.g., Strasburger, 1882)
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Darwinism
Darwinism
Darwinism
is a theory of biological evolution developed by the English naturalist Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin
(1809–1882) and others, stating that all species of organisms arise and develop through the natural selection of small, inherited variations that increase the individual's ability to compete, survive, and reproduce. Also called Darwinian theory, it originally included the broad concepts of transmutation of species or of evolution which gained general scientific acceptance after Darwin published On the Origin of Species
Species
in 1859, including concepts which predated Darwin's theories
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List Of Botanists By Author Abbreviation (A)
An abbreviation (from Latin
Latin
brevis, meaning short [1]) is a shortened form of a word or phrase. It consists of a group of letters taken from the word or phrase. For example, the word abbreviation can itself be represented by the abbreviation abbr., abbrv., or abbrev. In strict analysis, abbreviations should not be confused with contractions, crasis, acronyms, or initialisms, with which they share some semantic and phonetic functions, though all four are connected by the term "abbreviation" in loose parlance.[2]:p167An abbreviation is a shortening by any method; a contraction is a reduction of size by the drawing together of the parts. A contraction of a word is made by omitting certain letters or syllables and bringing together the first and last letters or elements; an abbreviation may be made by omitting certain portions from the interior or by cutting off a part. A contraction is an abbreviation, but an abbreviation is not necessarily a contraction
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Author Citation (botany)
In botanical nomenclature, author citation refers to citing the person or group of people who validly published a botanical name, i.e. who first published the name while fulfilling the formal requirements as specified by the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN).[1] In cases where a species is no longer in its original generic placement (i.e. a new combination of genus and specific epithet), both the author(s) of the original genus placement and those of the new combination are given (the former in parentheses). In botany, it is customary (though not obligatory) to abbreviate author names according to a recognised list of standard abbreviations. There are differences between the botanical code and the normal practice in zoology. In zoology, the publication year is given following the author name(s) and the authorship of a new combination is normally omitted
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Botanical Name
A botanical name is a formal scientific name conforming to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants
International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants
(ICN) and, if it concerns a plant cultigen, the additional cultivar or Group epithets must conform to the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP). The code of nomenclature covers "all organisms traditionally treated as algae, fungi, or plants, whether fossil or non-fossil, including blue-green algae (Cyanobacteria), chytrids, oomycetes, slime moulds and photosynthetic protists with their taxonomically related non-photosynthetic groups (but excluding Microsporidia)."[1] The purpose of a formal name is to have a single name that is accepted and used worldwide for a particular plant or plant group
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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Peter J. Bowler
Peter J. Bowler
Peter J. Bowler
FBA (born 8 October 1944)[1] is a historian of biology who has written extensively on the history of evolutionary thought, the history of the environmental sciences, and on the history of genetics. His 1984 book, Evolution: The History of an Idea is a standard textbook on the history of evolution; a 25th anniversary edition came in 2009
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Public Domain
The legal term public domain refers to works whose exclusive intellectual property rights have expired,[1] have been forfeited,[2] have been expressly waived, or are inapplicable.[3] For example, the works of Shakespeare
Shakespeare
and Beethoven, and most early silent films are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired.[1] Some works are not covered by copyright, and are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes,[4] and all computer software created prior to 1974.[5]
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Munich
Munich
Munich
(/ˈmjuːnɪk/; German: München, pronounced [ˈmʏnçn̩] ( listen),[2] Austro-Bavarian: Minga [ˈmɪŋ(ː)ɐ]) is the capital and the most populated city in the German state of Bavaria, on the banks of the River Isar
Isar
north of the Bavarian Alps
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Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition
The Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
Eleventh Edition (1910–11) is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication. Some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopedia, containing 40,000 entries, is now in the public domain; and many of its articles have been used as a basis for articles in.[1] However, the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic
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Virtual Laboratory
The online project Virtual Laboratory. Essays and Resources on the Experimentalization of Life, 1830-1930, located at the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science, is dedicated to research in the history of the experimentalization of life. The term experimentalization describes the interaction between the life sciences, the arts, architecture, media and technology within the experimental paradigm, ca. 1830 to 1930. The Virtual Laboratory is a platform that not only presents work on this topic but also acts as a research environment for new studies.Contents1 History 2 Structure 3 Literature 4 External linksHistory[edit] In 1997, the first version of the Virtual Laboratory was presented, titled Virtual Laboratory of Physiology. At this time, the main focus lay on the development of technological preconditions of physiological research in the 19th century. Therefore, a database with relevant texts and images was created
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