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Myoclonic Twitch
Myoclonus is a brief, involuntary twitching of a muscle or a group of muscles. It describes a medical sign and, generally, is not a diagnosis of a disease. These myoclonic twitches, jerks, or seizures are usually caused by sudden muscle contractions (positive myoclonus) or brief lapses of contraction (negative myoclonus). The most common circumstance under which they occur is while falling asleep (hypnic jerk). Myoclonic jerks occur in healthy persons and are experienced occasionally by everyone. However, when they appear with more persistence and become more widespread they can be a sign of various neurological disorders. Hiccups are a kind of myoclonic jerk specifically affecting the diaphragm. When a spasm is caused by another person it is known as a provoked spasm. Shuddering attacks in babies fall in this category. Myoclonic jerks may occur alone or in sequence, in a pattern or without pattern. They may occur infrequently or many times each minute
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Specialty (medicine)
A specialty, or speciality, in medicine is a branch of medical practice. After completing medical school, physicians or surgeons usually further their medical education in a specific specialty of medicine by completing a multiple year residency to become a medical specialist.[1]Contents1 History of medical specialization 2 Classification of medical specialization 3 Specialties that are common worldwide 4 List of specialties recognized in the European Union and European Economic Area 5 List of North American medical specialties and others 6 Physician
Physician
compensation 7 Specialties by country7.1 Australia and New Zealand 7.2 Canada 7.3 Germany 7.4 India 7.5 United States 7.6 Specialty and Physician
Physician
Location8 Other uses 9 Training 10 Satisfaction 11 See also 12 ReferencesHistory of medical specialization[edit] To a certain extent, medical practitioners have always been specialized
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Diaphragmatic Breathing
Diaphragmatic breathing, or deep breathing, is breathing that is done by contracting the diaphragm, a muscle located horizontally between the thoracic cavity and abdominal cavity. Air enters the lungs and the chest rises and the belly expands during this type of breathing. Diaphragmatic breathing
Diaphragmatic breathing
is also known scientifically as eupnea, which is a natural and relaxed form of breathing in all mammals. Eupnea occurs in mammals whenever they are in a state of relaxation, i.e. when there is no clear and present danger in their environment.Contents1 Explanation 2 In complementary and alternative medicine 3 Relation to yoga and meditation 4 Benefits 5 Relation to music 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 External links9.1 CAM therapy suggestionsExplanation[edit] According to the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, "12.7 percent of American adults [have] used deep-breathing exercises..
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Electric Shock
Electrical injury
Electrical injury
is a physiological reaction caused by electric current passing through the (human) body.[1] Electric shock
Electric shock
occurs upon contact of a (human) body part with any source of electricity that causes a sufficient magnitude of current to pass through the victim's flesh, viscera or hair. Physical contact with energized wiring or devices is the most common cause of an electric shock. In cases of exposure to high voltages, such as on a power transmission tower, physical contact with energized wiring or objects may not be necessary to cause electric shock, as the voltage may be sufficient to "jump" the air gap between the electrical device and the victim. The injury related to electric shock depends on the magnitude of the current. [2] Very small currents may be imperceptible or produce a light tingling sensation
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Reflex Epilepsy
Reflex seizures are epileptic seizures that are consistently induced by a specific stimulus or trigger making them distinct from normal eplipetic seizures, which are usually unprovoked.[1][2] Epilepsy syndromes characterized by the presence of repeatable reflex seizures are thus known as reflex epilepsies.[2][1] Reflex epilepsies are relatively rare and make up approximately 5% of all epilepsy syndromes.[2] In susceptible people, reflex seizures may be elicited by many different kinds of stimuli with the most common type being photosensitive seizures which make up 75-80% of all reflex seizures.[2] Other triggers of reflex seizures include music, reading, hot water, touch, orgasm, thinking, or emotion.[2][3][4][5][6] Reflex seizures are caused by the stimulation of a normally existing network of neurons by the specific trigger which results in the reflex seizure.[2] These reflex seizures are clinically similar to unprovoked seizures and may be focal or generalized seizures including bot
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Photosensitive Epilepsy
Photosensitive epilepsy
Photosensitive epilepsy
(PSE) is a form of epilepsy in which seizures are triggered by visual stimuli that form patterns in time or space, such as flashing lights; bold, regular patterns; or regular moving patterns.Contents1 Signs and symptoms1.1 Television 1.2 Fluorescent lighting 1.3 Video
Video
games and pinball machines 1.4 Web design2 Diagnosis 3 Treatment and prognosis 4 Society and culture 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksSigns and symptoms[edit] People with PSE experience epileptiform seizures upon exposure to certain visual stimuli. The exact nature of the stimulus or stimuli that triggers the seizures varies from one patient to another, as does the nature and severity of the resulting seizures (ranging from brief absence seizures to full tonic–clonic seizures)
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Progressive Myoclonus Epilepsies
Progressive myoclonus epilepsy (PME) is a rare epilepsy syndrome caused by a variety of genetic disorders. The syndrome includes myoclonic seizures and tonic-clonic seizures together with progressive neurological decline.Contents1 Signs and symptoms 2 Differential diagnosis 3 Specific disorders3.1 Unverricht-Lundborg disease 3.2 Myoclonus epilepsy and ragged red fibres (MERRF syndrome) 3.3 Lafora body disease 3.4 Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses 3.5 Type I sialidosis4 Epidemiology 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksSigns and symptoms[edit]This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Myoclonic seizures involve brief involuntary muscle twitching, and may become frequent enough to be disabling
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Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy
Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME), also known as Janz syndrome, is a fairly common form of idiopathic generalized epilepsy, representing 5-10% of all epilepsy cases. This disorder typically first manifests itself between the ages of 12 and 18 with brief episodes of involuntary muscle twitching occurring early in the morning. Most patients also have generalized seizures that affect the entire brain and many also have absence seizures. Genetic studies have demonstrated at least 6 loci for JME, 4 with known causative genes
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Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome
Lennox–Gastaut syndrome (LGS) is a childhood-onset epilepsy that most often appears between the second and sixth year of life. LGS is characterized by a triad of signs including frequent seizures of multiple types, an abnormal EEG
EEG
pattern of less than 2.5 Hz slow spike wave activity,[1] and moderate to severe intellectual impairment.[2]Contents1 Signs and symptoms 2 Causes 3 Diagnosis 4 Treatment4.1 Medication4.1.1 First-line drugs 4.1.2 Second-line drugs4.2 Surgical 4.3 Other4.3.1 Ketogenic diet 4.3.2 Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy5 Prognosis 6 Epidemiology6.1 Finland 6.2 United States7 History7.1 Community8 Research 9 See also 10 References 11 External linksSigns and symptoms[edit]This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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Tonic-clonic Seizures
A generalized tonic–clonic seizure (formerly known as a grand mal seizure) is a type of generalized seizure that affects the entire brain. Tonic–clonic seizures are the seizure type most commonly associated with epilepsy and seizures in general, though it is a misconception that they are the only type. Tonic–clonic seizures can be induced deliberately in electroconvulsive therapy.Contents1 Pathophysiology 2 Phases 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksPathophysiology[edit] The vast majority of generalized seizures are idiopathic.[1] However, some generalized seizures start as a smaller seizure such as a simple partial seizure or a complex partial seizure and then spread to both hemispheres of the brain. This is called a secondary generalization.[2] Factors could include chemical and neurotransmitter imbalances and a genetically or situationally determined seizure threshold, both of which have been implicated
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Lafora Disease
Lafora disease, also called Lafora progressive myoclonic epilepsy or MELF,[1] is a fatal autosomal recessive[2] genetic disorder characterized by the presence of inclusion bodies, known as Lafora bodies, within the cytoplasm of the cells in the heart, liver, muscle, and skin.[3]:545 Lafora disease is also a neurodegenerative disease that causes impairment in the development of cerebral cortical neurons and it is a glycogen metabolism disorder.[4] Dogs can also have the condition
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Dementia
Dementia
Dementia
is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.[2] Other common symptoms include emotional problems, problems with language, and a decrease in motivation.[2][3] A person's consciousness is usually not affected.[2] A dementia diagnosis requires a change from a person's usual mental functioning and a greater decline than one would expect due to aging.[2][11] These diseases also have a significant effect on a person's
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Brainstem
The brainstem (or brain stem) is the posterior part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord. In the human brain the brainstem includes the midbrain, the pons, and the medulla oblongata. Sometimes the diencephalon, the caudal part of the forebrain, is included.[1] The brainstem provides the main motor and sensory innervation to the face and neck via the cranial nerves. Of the twelve pairs of cranial nerves, ten pairs come from the brainstem. Though small, this is an extremely important part of the brain as the nerve connections of the motor and sensory systems from the main part of the brain to the rest of the body pass through the brainstem
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Flutter (electronics And Communication)
In electronics and communication, flutter is the rapid variation of signal parameters, such as amplitude, phase, and frequency
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Electromyography
Electromyography
Electromyography
(EMG) is an electrodiagnostic medicine technique for evaluating and recording the electrical activity produced by skeletal muscles.[1] EMG is performed using an instrument called an electromyograph to produce a record called an electromyogram. An electromyograph detects the electric potential generated by muscle cells[2] when these cells are electrically or neurologically activated
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Antony Van Leeuwenhoek
Antonie Philips van Leeuwenhoek[note 2] (/ˈleɪvənhʊk/; Dutch: [ɑnˈtoːni vɑn ˈleːuə(n)ˌɦuk] ( listen); 24 October 1632 – 26 August 1723) was a Dutch businessman and scientist in the Golden Age of Dutch science and technology. A largely self-taught man in science, he is commonly known as "the Father of Microbiology", and one of the first microscopists and microbiologists.[5][6] Van Leeuwenhoek is best known for his pioneering work in microscopy and for his contributions toward the establishment of microbiology as a scientific discipline. Raised in Delft, in the Dutch Republic, van Leeuwenhoek worked as a draper in his youth and founded his own shop in 1654. He became well recognized in municipal politics and developed an interest in lensmaking. In the 1670s, he started to explore microbial life with his microscope.[note 3] This was one of the notable achievements of the Golden Age of Dutch exploration and discovery (c
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