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Mustafa III
Mustafa III
Mustafa III
(Ottoman Turkish: مصطفى ثالث‎, lit. 'Muṣṭafā-yi sālis') (28 January 1717 – 24 December 1773) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
from 1757 to 1773. He was a son of Sultan
Sultan
Ahmed III
Ahmed III
(1703–30) and was succeeded by his brother Abdul Hamid I
Abdul Hamid I
(1774–89). He was born in Edirne Palace. His mother was Mihrişah Kadın.Contents1 Early life 2 Reign2.1 Character of Mustafa's rule 2.2 Treaty with Prussia 2.3 Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774) 2.4 Architecture3 Poetry 4 Death 5 Family 6 References 7 BibliographyEarly life[edit] Mustafa was born at the Edirne Palace
Edirne Palace
on 28 January 1717.[1] His mother was Mihrişah Kadın.[2] He had a full brother named, Şehzade Süleyman
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Russia
Coordinates: 60°N 90°E / 60°N 90°E / 60; 90Russian Federation Росси́йская Федерaция (Russian) Rossiyskaya FederatsiyaFlagCoat of armsAnthem:  "Gosudarstvenny gimn Rossiyskoy Federatsii"  (transliteration) "State Anthem of the Russian Federation"Location of Russia
Russia
(green) Russian-administered Crimea
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Sultan
Sultan
Sultan
(/ˈsʌltən/; Arabic: سلطان‎ sulṭān, pronounced [sʊlˈtˤɑːn, solˈtˤɑːn]) is a position with several historical meanings. Originally, it was an Arabic
Arabic
abstract noun meaning "strength", "authority", "rulership", derived from the verbal noun سلطة sulṭah, meaning "authority" or "power". Later, it came to be used as the title of certain rulers who claimed almost full sovereignty in practical terms (i.e., the lack of dependence on any higher ruler), albeit without claiming the overall caliphate, or to refer to a powerful governor of a province within the caliphate. The adjective form of the word is "sultanic",[1] and the dynasty and lands ruled by a sultan are referred to as a sultanate (سلطنة salṭanah). The term is distinct from king (ملك malik), despite both referring to a sovereign ruler
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Ottoman Turkish Language
Ottoman Turkish (/ˈɒtəmən/; Turkish: Osmanlı Türkçesi), or the Ottoman language (Ottoman Turkish: لسان عثمانى‎, lisân-ı Osmânî, also known as تركجه‎, Türkçe or تركی‎, Türkî, "Turkish"; Turkish: Osmanlıca), is the variety of the Turkish language
Turkish language
that was used in the Ottoman Empire. It borrows, in all aspects, extensively from Arabic
Arabic
and Persian, and it was written in the Ottoman Turkish alphabet
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Tughra
A tughra (Ottoman Turkish: طغرا‎ tuğrâ) is a calligraphic monogram, seal or signature of a sultan that was affixed to all official documents and correspondence. It was also carved on his seal and stamped on the coins minted during his reign. Very elaborate decorated versions were created for important documents that were also works of art in the tradition of Ottoman illumination, such as the example of Suleiman the Magnificent
Suleiman the Magnificent
in the gallery below. The tughra was designed at the beginning of the sultan's reign and drawn by the court calligrapher or nişancı on written documents
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Sunni Islam
OthersZahiri Awza'i Thawri Laythi Jariri Sunni
Sunni
schools of theologyAsh'ari Maturidi TraditionalistOthers:Mu'tazila Murji'ahContemporary movementsAhl-i Hadith Al-Ahbash Barelvi Deobandi Islamic Modernism Salafi
Salafi
movement WahhabismHoly sitesJerusalem Mecca Medina Mount SinaiListsLiteratureKutub al-Sittah Islam
Islam
portalv t eThis article contains Arabic text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols. Sunni
Sunni
Islam
Islam
(/ˈsuːni, ˈsʊni/) is the largest denomination of Islam
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Bulgaria
Coordinates: 42°45′N 25°30′E / 42.750°N 25.500°E / 42.750; 25.500Republic of Bulgaria Република България  (Bulgarian) Republika BǎlgariyaFlagCoat of armsMotto: Съединението прави силата (Bulgarian) "Sǎedinenieto pravi silata"  (transliteration) "Unity makes strength"Anthem:  Мила Родино  (Bulgarian) Mila Rodino  (transliteration) Dear MotherlandLocation of  Bulgaria  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)  –  [Legend]Capital and largest city Sofia 42°41′N 23°19′E / 42.683°N 23.317°E / 42.683; 23.317Official languages BulgarianOfficial script CyrillicEthnic groups (2011[1])84.8% Bulgarians 8.8% Turks 4.9% Roma 1.5% othersReligion Bulgarian O
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Romania
Coordinates: 46°N 25°E / 46°N 25°E / 46; 25Romania România  (Romanian)FlagCoat of armsAnthem: Deșteaptă-te, române! '"Awaken thee, Romanian!"Location of  Romania  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)  –  [Legend]Capital and largest city Bucharest 44°25′N 26°06′E / 44.417°N 26.100°E / 44.417; 26.100Official languages Romanian[1]Recognised minority languages[2]Albanian Armenian Bulgarian Czech Croatian German Greek Italian Macedonian Hungarian Polish Romani Russian Rusyn Serbian Slovak Tatar Turkish Ukrainian YiddishEthnic groups (2011[3])88.9% Romanians 6.1% Hungarians 3.0% Roma 0.2% Ukrainians 0.2% GermansDemonym RomanianGovernment Unitary semi-presidential republic• PresidentKlaus Iohannis• Pr
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Caucasus
 Abkhazia Artsakh South OssetiaAutonomous republics and federal regions Russia Adygea  Chechnya  Dagestan  Ingushetia  Kabardino-Balkaria Karachay-Cherkessia  Krasnodar Krai North Ossetia-Alania  Stavropol Krai Georgia Adjara Abkhazia (since 2008, in exile) Azerbaijan NakhchivanDemonym CaucasianTime Zones UTC+02:00, UTC+03:00, UTC+03:30, UTC+4:00, UTC+04:30The Caucasus
Caucasus
/ˈkɔːkəsəs/ or Caucasia /kɔːˈkeɪʒə/ is a region located at the border of
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Dynasty
A dynasty (UK: /ˈdɪnəsti/, US: /ˈdaɪnəsti/) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,[1] usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes also appearing in elective republics. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "house",[2] which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital", etc., depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of many sovereign states, such as Ancient Egypt, the Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe events, trends, and artifacts of that period ("a Ming-dynasty vase")
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Fatih
Fatih, historically Constantinople, is the capital district and a municipality (belediye) in Istanbul, Turkey
Turkey
which hosts the provincial authorities, including the governor's office, police headquarters, metropolitan municipality and tax office while encompassing the peninsula coinciding with old Constantinople. In 2009, the district of Eminönü, which had been a separate municipality located at the tip of the peninsula, was remerged into Fatih
Fatih
because of the small population of Eminönü
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Amir Al-Mu'minin
Amir
Amir
al-Mu'minin (Arabic: أمير المؤمنين‎), usually translated "Commander of the Faithful" or "Leader of the Faithful", is the Arabic style of some Caliphs and other independent sovereign Muslim
Muslim
rulers that claim legitimacy from a community of Muslims. It has been claimed as the title of rulers in Muslim
Muslim
countries and empires and is still used for some Muslim
Muslim
leaders. The use of the title does not necessarily signify a claim to caliphate as it is usually taken to be, but described a certain form of activist leadership which may have been attached to a caliph but also could signify a level of authority beneath that. The Ottoman sultans, in particular, made scant use of it
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Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman Empire (/ˈɒtəmən/; Devlet-i ʿAlīye-i ʿOsmānīye[dn 5]), also historically known in Western Europe
Europe
as the Turkish Empire[8] or simply Turkey,[9] was a state that controlled much of southeastern Europe, western Asia and northern Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia
Anatolia
in the town of Söğüt (modern-day Bilecik Province) by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman.[10] After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman Beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire
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Istanbul
Istanbul
Istanbul
(UK: /ˌɪstænˈbʊl/, /-ˈbuːl/ or US: /-stɑːn-/ or /ˈɪstənˌbʊl/;[7][8][9] Turkish: İstanbul [isˈtɑnbuɫ] ( listen)), historically known as Constantinople
Constantinople
and Byzantium, is the most populous city in what is modern-day Turkey
Turkey
and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center. Istanbul
Istanbul
is a transcontinental city in Eurasia, straddling the Bosphorus
Bosphorus
strait (which separates Europe
Europe
and Asia) between the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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