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Muscovite–Lithuanian Wars
The Muscovite–Lithuanian Wars
Muscovite–Lithuanian Wars
(also known as Russo-Lithuanian Wars, or just either Muscovite Wars or Lithuanian Wars)[nb 1] were a series of wars between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, allied with the Kingdom of Poland, and the Grand Duchy of Moscow. After several defeats at the hands of Ivan III
Ivan III
and Vasily III, the Lithuanians were increasingly reliant on Polish aid, which eventually became an important factor in the creation of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Before the first series of wars in the 15th century, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
had already gained control of a lot of Rus' territories, from Kiev
Kiev
to Mozhaisk, following the collapse of Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
after the Mongol invasions
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Orthodox Church
The Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
Church,[1] also known as the Orthodox Church,[2] or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church,[3] is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.[4][5] As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, it has played a prominent role in the history and culture of Eastern Europe,
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Gediminas
Gediminas
Gediminas
(c. 1275 – December 1341) was Grand Duke
Grand Duke
of Lithuania from 1315 or 1316[1][2] until his death
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Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland
Poland
and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland
Poland
and Lithuania
Lithuania
ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland
Poland
and the Grand Duke
Duke
of Lithuania. It was one of the largest[2][3] and most populous countries of 16th- and 17th-century Europe
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Rus' People
The Rus' (Slavic: Русь, Greek: Ῥῶς) were an early medieval group, who lived in a large area of what is now Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, and other countries, and are the ancestors of modern Russians and other related slavic peoples. The Rus' came from what is today Roslagen
Roslagen
of modern day Sweden
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Kiev
Kiev
Kiev
(/ˈkiːɛf, -ɛv/ KEE-ef, -ev)[10] or Kyiv (Ukrainian: Київ, translit. Kyiv [ˈkɪjiu̯] ( listen); Old East Slavic: Кыѥвъ, translit. Kyjev; Polish: Kijów Polish pronunciation: [ˈkʲijuf]; Russian: Киев, translit. Kiyev [ˈkʲiɪf]) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper. The population in July 2015 was 2,887,974[2] (though higher estimated numbers have been cited in the press),[11] making Kiev
Kiev
the 7th most populous city in Europe.[12] Kiev
Kiev
is an important industrial, scientific, educational, and cultural centre of Eastern Europe
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Mozhaisk
Mozhaysk[6] (Russian: Можайск, IPA: [mɐˈʐajsk]) is a town and the administrative center of Mozhaysky District in Moscow Oblast, Russia, located 110 kilometers (68 mi) to the west of Moscow, on the historic road leading to Smolensk
Smolensk
and then to Poland. Population: 31,363 (2010 Census);[3] 31,459 (2002 Census);[7] 30,735 (1989 Census).[8]Contents1 History 2 Administrative and municipal status 3 Architecture 4 Trivia 5 Twin towns and sister cities 6 References6.1 Notes 6.2 Sources7 External linksHistory[edit] It was first mentioned in 1231 as an appanage of Chernigov;[citation needed] it was named after the Mozhay (Mozhaya) River, whose name is of Baltic origin (cf. Lithuanian mažoja 'small').[9] Later it was an important stronghold of the Smolensk
Smolensk
dynasty, at one time owned by Theodore the Black
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Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
(Old East Slavic: Рѹ́сь (Rus'), Рѹ́сьскаѧ землѧ (Rus'skaya zemlya), Latin: Rus(s)ia, Ruscia, Ruzzia, Rut(h)enia,[2][3]) was a loose federation[4] of East Slavic tribes in Europe
Europe
from the late 9th to the mid-13th century,[5] under the reign of the Rurik
Rurik
dynasty
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Belarus
Coordinates: 53°N 23°E / 53°N 23°E / 53; 23 Republic
Republic
of Belarus Рэспубліка Беларусь (Belarusian) Республика Беларусь (Russian)FlagNational emblemAnthem: Дзяржаўны гімн Рэспублікі Беларусь (Belarusian) Dziaržaŭny himn Respubliki Bielaruś (English: State Anthem of Belarus)Location of  Belarus  (green) in Europe  (dark grey)  –  [Legend]Capital and largest city Minsk 53°55′N 27°33′E / 53.917°N 27.550
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Ruthenians
Ruthenians
Ruthenians
and Ruthenes are Latin
Latin
exonyms which were used in Western Europe for the ancestors of modern East Slavic peoples, Rus' people with Ruthenian Greek Catholic
Greek Catholic
religious background.[1] Along with Lithuanians
Lithuanians
and Samogitians, Ruthenians
Ruthenians
constituted the main population of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, which at its fullest extent was called the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Ruthenia
Ruthenia
and Samogitia (Ruthenian: Великое князство Литовское, Руское, Жомойтское и иных).[2] From the 9th century, the "land of the Rus'", known later as Kievan Rus', was known in Western Europe by a variety of names derived from Rus'
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Vasili III Of Russia
Vasili III Ivanovich (Russian: Василий III Иванович, also Basil; 26 March 1479 – 3 December 1533, Moscow) was the Grand Prince of Moscow
Moscow
from 1505 to 1533. He was the son of Ivan III Vasiliyevich and Sophia Paleologue
Sophia Paleologue
and was christened with the name Gavriil (Гавриил). He had three brothers: Yuri, born in 1480, Simeon, born in 1487 and Andrei, born in 1490, as well as five sisters: Elena (born and died in 1474), Feodosiya (born and died in 1475), another Elena (born 1476), another Feodosiya (born 1485) and Eudoxia (born 1492).[1]Contents1 Foreign affairs 2 Domestic affairs 3 Family life 4 Death 5 Ancestry 6 See also 7 ReferencesForeign affairs[edit]Map of Russia (Moscovia) published by Sigismund von Herberstein in 1549Vasili III continued the policies of his father Ivan III and spent most of his reign consolidating Ivan's gains
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Battle On The Irpen' River
The Battle on the Irpin River
Irpin River
is a semi-legendary battle between the armies of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
and Principality of Kiev. According to the story, Gediminas, the Grand Duke of Lithuania, conquered Volhynia
Volhynia
before turning his attention to Kiev. He was opposed by Prince Stanislav of Kiev
Kiev
allied with the Principality of Pereyaslavl and Bryansk. Lithuanians achieved a great victory and extended their influence to Kiev. There are no contemporary sources that attest to the battle. It is known only from late and generally unreliable Lithuanian Chronicles. Therefore, historians disagree whether it was an actual battle in the early 1320s[nb 1] or a fictional story invented by later scribes
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Chernigov
Chernihiv
Chernihiv
(Ukrainian: Чернігів Ukrainian pronunciation: [t͡ʃɛrˈnʲiɦiw]) also known as Chernigov (Russian: Черни́гов, IPA: [tɕɪrˈnʲiɡəf], Polish: Czernihów)[2] is a historic city in northern Ukraine, which serves as the administrative center of the Chernihiv Oblast
Chernihiv Oblast
(province), as well as of the surrounding Chernihiv Raion
Chernihiv Raion
(district) within the oblast. Administratively, it is incorporated as a city of oblast significance. Population: 294,727 (2015 est.)[3]Contents1 Geography 2 History 3 Architecture3.1 Monasteries4 Climate 5 Gallery 6 Famous people from Chernihiv 7 International relations7.1 Twin towns - Sister cities8 References8.1 Bibliography 8.2 Notes9 External linksGeography[edit]This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it
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Severia
Severia or Siveria (Old East Slavic: Сѣверія, Ukrainian: Сіверія or Сіверщина, translit. Siveria or Sivershchyna, Russian: Северщина, Severshchina; Polish: Siewierszczyzna) is a historical region in present-day northern Ukraine, eastern Belarus
Belarus
and southwestern Russia, centered on the city of Novhorod-Siverskyi
Novhorod-Siverskyi
in Ukraine.Contents1 Severians 2 Culture 3 References 4 External linksSeverians[edit] Main article: Severians The region received its name after the Severians, an East Slavic tribe which inhabited the territory in the late 1st millennium A.D
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Algirdas
Algirdas
Algirdas
(Belarusian: Альгерд, Ukrainian: Ольгерд, Polish: Olgierd; c. 1296 – May 1377) was a ruler of medieval Lithuania. He ruled the Lithuanians
Lithuanians
and Ruthenians
Ruthenians
from 1345 to 1377. With the help of his brother Kęstutis
Kęstutis
(who defended the western border of the Duchy) he created an empire stretching from the present Baltic states
Baltic states
to the Black Sea
Black Sea
and to within fifty miles of Moscow.Contents1 Background 2 Expansion of Lithuania 3 Religion and death 4 Assessment 5 See also 6 ReferencesBackground[edit] Algirdas
Algirdas
was one of the seven sons of Grand Prince Gediminas. Before his death in 1341, Gediminas
Gediminas
divided his domain, leaving his youngest son Jaunutis in possession of the capital, Vilnius
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Tver
Tver
Tver
(Russian: Тверь, IPA: [tvʲerʲ]; IPA: [tvʲerʲi]) is a city and the administrative center of Tver
Tver
Oblast, Russia. Population: 414,606 (2015 est.);[8] 403,606 (2010 Census);[7] 408,903 (2002 Census);[14] 450,941 (1989 Census).[15] Located 180 kilometres (110 mi) northwest of Moscow, Tver
Tver
was formerly the capital of a powerful medieval state and a model provincial town in the Russian Empire, with a population of 60,000 on January 14, 1913. It is situated at the confluence of the Volga and Tvertsa
Tvertsa
Rivers. The city was known as Kalinin (Кали́нин) from 1931 to 1990
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