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Muscovite
Muscovite
Muscovite
(also known as common mica, isinglass, or potash mica[5]) is a hydrated phyllosilicate mineral of aluminium and potassium with formula KAl2(AlSi3O10)(FOH)2, or (KF)2(Al2O3)3(SiO2)6(H2O). It has a highly perfect basal cleavage yielding remarkably thin laminae (sheets) which are often highly elastic. Sheets of muscovite 5 m × 3 m have been found in Nellore, India.[6] Muscovite
Muscovite
with beryl (var. morganite) from Paprok, Afghanistan Muscovite
Muscovite
(var. alurgite), from Prabornaz Mine, Aosta Valley, Italy Muscovite
Muscovite
has a Mohs hardness
Mohs hardness
of 2–2.25 parallel to the [001] face, 4 perpendicular to the [001] and a specific gravity of 2.76–3. It can be colorless or tinted through grays, browns, greens, yellows, or (rarely) violet or red, and can be transparent or translucent. It is anisotropic and has high birefringence
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Red
Red
Red
is the color at the end of the visible spectrum of light, next to orange and opposite violet. It has a dominant wavelength of approximately 625–740 nanometres.[1] It is a primary color in the RGB color model
RGB color model
and the CMYK color model, and is the complementary color of cyan. Reds range from the brilliant yellow-tinged scarlet and vermillion to bluish-red crimson, and vary in shade from the pale red pink to the dark red burgundy.[2] The red sky at sunset results from Rayleigh scattering, while the red color of the Grand Canyon
Grand Canyon
and other geological features is caused by hematite or red ochre, both forms of iron oxide
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Hydrate
In chemistry, a hydrate is a substance that contains water or its constituent elements. The chemical state of the water varies widely between different classes of hydrates, some of which were so labeled before their chemical structure was understood.Contents1 Chemical nature1.1 Organic chemistry 1.2 Inorganic chemistry 1.3 Clathrate
Clathrate
hydrates2 Stability 3 See also 4 ReferencesChemical nature[edit] Organic chemistry[edit] In organic chemistry, a hydrate is a compound formed by the addition of water or its elements to another molecule. For example: ethanol, CH3–CH2–OH, is the product of the hydration reaction of ethene, CH2=CH2, formed by the addition of H to one C and OH to the other C, and so can be considered as the hydrate of ethene. A molecule of water may be eliminated, for example by the action of sulfuric acid
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Fluorescence
Fluorescence
Fluorescence
is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation. It is a form of luminescence. In most cases, the emitted light has a longer wavelength, and therefore lower energy, than the absorbed radiation. The most striking example of fluorescence occurs when the absorbed radiation is in the ultraviolet region of the spectrum, and thus invisible to the human eye, while the emitted light is in the visible region, which gives the fluorescent substance a distinct color that can only be seen when exposed to UV light
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Aluminium
Aluminium
Aluminium
or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13. It is a silvery-white, soft, nonmagnetic and ductile metal in the boron group. By mass, aluminium makes up about 8% of the Earth's crust; it is the third most abundant element after oxygen and silicon and the most abundant metal in the crust, though it is less common in the mantle below. The chief ore of aluminium is bauxite. Aluminium
Aluminium
metal is so chemically reactive that native specimens are rare and limited to extreme reducing environments. Instead, it is found combined in over 270 different minerals.[5] Aluminium
Aluminium
is remarkable for its low density and its ability to resist corrosion through the phenomenon of passivation
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Aluminum
Aluminium
Aluminium
or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13. It is a silvery-white, soft, nonmagnetic and ductile metal in the boron group. By mass, aluminium makes up about 8% of the Earth's crust; it is the third most abundant element after oxygen and silicon and the most abundant metal in the crust, though it is less common in the mantle below. The chief ore of aluminium is bauxite. Aluminium
Aluminium
metal is so chemically reactive that native specimens are rare and limited to extreme reducing environments. Instead, it is found combined in over 270 different minerals.[5] Aluminium
Aluminium
is remarkable for its low density and its ability to resist corrosion through the phenomenon of passivation
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Oxygen
Oxygen
Oxygen
is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8. It is a member of the chalcogen group on the periodic table, a highly reactive nonmetal, and an oxidizing agent that readily forms oxides with most elements as well as with other compounds. By mass, oxygen is the third-most abundant element in the universe, after hydrogen and helium. At standard temperature and pressure, two atoms of the element bind to form dioxygen, a colorless and odorless diatomic gas with the formula O 2. Diatomic oxygen gas constitutes 20.8% of the Earth's atmosphere
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Fluorine
Fluorine
Fluorine
is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9. It is the lightest halogen and exists as a highly toxic pale yellow diatomic gas at standard conditions. As the most electronegative element, it is extremely reactive: almost all other elements, including some noble gases, form compounds with fluorine. Among the elements, fluorine ranks 24th in universal abundance and 13th in terrestrial abundance. Fluorite, the primary mineral source of fluorine which gave the element its name, was first described in 1529; as it was added to metal ores to lower their melting points for smelting, the Latin verb fluo meaning "flow" gave the mineral its name. Proposed as an element in 1810, fluorine proved difficult and dangerous to separate from its compounds, and several early experimenters died or sustained injuries from their attempts
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Hydrogen
Hydrogen
Hydrogen
is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1. With a standard atomic weight of 7000100800000000000♠1.008, hydrogen is the lightest element on the periodic table. Its monatomic form (H) is the most abundant chemical substance in the Universe, constituting roughly 75% of all baryonic mass.[7][note 1] Non-remnant stars are mainly composed of hydrogen in the plasma state. The most common isotope of hydrogen, termed protium (name rarely used, symbol 1H), has one proton and no neutrons. The universal emergence of atomic hydrogen first occurred during the recombination epoch. At standard temperature and pressure, hydrogen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic, nonmetallic, highly combustible diatomic gas with the molecular formula H2. Since hydrogen readily forms covalent compounds with most nonmetallic elements, most of the hydrogen on Earth exists in molecular forms such as water or organic compounds
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Potassium Fluoride
Potassium fluoride is the chemical compound with the formula KF. After hydrogen fluoride, KF is the primary source of the fluoride ion for applications in manufacturing and in chemistry. It is an alkali halide and occurs naturally as the rare mineral carobbiite. Solutions of KF will etch glass due to the formation of soluble fluorosilicates, although HF is more effective.Contents1 Preparation 2 Applications in organic chemistry 3 Safety considerations 4 ReferencesPreparation[edit] Potassium fluoride is prepared by dissolving potassium carbonate in excess hydrofluoric acid. Evaporation of the solution forms crystals of potassium bifluoride. The bifluoride on heating yields potassium fluoride:K2CO3 + 4HF → 2KHF2 + CO2↑ + H2O KHF2 → KF + HF↑The salt must not be prepared in glass or porcelain vessels as HF and the aqueous solution of KF corrode glass and porcelain
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Aluminate
In chemistry aluminate is a compound containing an oxyanion of aluminium, such as sodium aluminate. In the naming of inorganic compounds it is a suffix that indicates a polyatomic anion with a central aluminum atom.[1]Contents1 Aluminate oxyanions 2 Mixed oxides containing aluminium 3 Hydroxoaluminates 4 Aluminate glasses 5 Applications of aluminates 6 Aluminate suffix used in the naming of inorganic compounds 7 Aluminates made using new raw materials 8 Notes Aluminate oxyanions[edit] Aluminium
Aluminium
oxide (alumina) is amphoteric: it dissolves in both bases and acids. When dissolved in bases it forms hydroxyaluminate ions in the same way as aluminium hydroxide or aluminium salts. The hydroxyaluminate or hydrated aluminate can be precipitated and then calcined to produce anhydrous aluminates
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Silicate
A silicate is a compound containing an anionic silicon compound. The great majority of the silicates are oxides, but hexafluorosilicate ([SiF6]2−) and other anions are also included. "Orthosilicate" is the anion SiO4− 4 or its compounds. Related to orthosilicate are families of anions (and their compounds) with the formula [SiO2+n]2n−. Important members are the cyclic and single chain silicates [SiO3]2− n and the sheet-forming silicates [SiO2.5]− n.[1] Silicates constitute the majority of Earth's crust, as well as the other terrestrial planets, rocky moons, and asteroids. Sand, Portland cement, and thousands of minerals are examples of silicates. Silicate compounds, including the minerals, consist of silicate anions whose charge is balanced by various cations. Myriad silicate anions can exist, and each can form compounds with many different cations. Hence this class of compounds is very large
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Basal Cleavage
Cleavage, in mineralogy, is the tendency of crystalline materials to split along definite crystallographic structural planes. These planes of relative weakness are a result of the regular locations of atoms and ions in the crystal, which create smooth repeating surfaces that are visible both in the microscope and to the naked eye.[1]Contents1 Types of cleavage 2 Parting 3 Uses 4 See also 5 ReferencesTypes of cleavage[edit]Miller indices h k ℓ Cleavage forms parallel to crystallographic planes:[1]Basal or pinacoidal cleavage occurs when there is only one cleavage plane. Graphite has basal cleavage. Mica (like muscovite or biotite) also has basal cleavage; this is why mica can be peeled into thin sheets. Cubic cleavage occurs on when there are three cleavage planes intersecting at 90 degrees
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Doce River
The Doce River
Doce River
(literally the "sweet river"; Portuguese: Rio Doce [ˈʁiu ˈdos(i)]) is a river in southeast Brazil
Brazil
with a length of 853 kilometres (530 mi). The river basin is economically important. In 2015 the collapse of a dam released highly contaminated water from mining into the river causing an ecological disaster.Contents1 Course 2 Economic value 3 Climate 4 Ecological disaster 5 References 6 External linksCourse[edit] The Doce River
Doce River
is formed by the junction of the Piranga and the Carmo[1] near the historical city of Ouro Preto, whose sources are located in the foothills of the Mantiqueira and Espinhaço mountain chains at altitudes of about 1,200 m
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Elasticity (physics)
In physics, elasticity (from Greek ἐλαστός "ductible") is the ability of a body to resist a distorting influence and to return to its original size and shape when that influence or force is removed. Solid objects will deform when adequate forces are applied on them. If the material is elastic, the object will return to its initial shape and size when these forces are removed. The physical reasons for elastic behavior can be quite different for different materials. In metals, the atomic lattice changes size and shape when forces are applied (energy is added to the system). When forces are removed, the lattice goes back to the original lower energy state. For rubbers and other polymers, elasticity is caused by the stretching of polymer chains when forces are applied. Perfect elasticity is an approximation of the real world. The most elastic body in modern science found is quartz fibre[citation needed] which is not even a perfect elastic body
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Nellore
Nellore
Nellore
is a city and district headquarters of Nellore district
Nellore district
in the Indian state
Indian state
of Andhra Pradesh. It is located on the banks of Penna River[4] and is the fourth most populous city in the state.[5]Contents1 Etymology 2 History 3 Geography3.1 Climate4 Demographics 5 Governance 6 Economy 7 Culture 8 Economy 9 Transport 10 Education 11 Media 12 See also 13 References 14 External linksEtymology[edit] A mythological story from Sthala Purana
Sthala Purana
depicts, a lingam in the form of a stone under belli tree
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