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Muscovite
MUSCOVITE (also known as COMMON MICA, ISINGLASS, or POTASH MICA ) is a hydrated phyllosilicate mineral of aluminium and potassium with formula K Al 2(AlSi 3O 10)(F ,OH )2, or (KF )2(Al2O3 )3(SiO2 )6(H2O ). It has a highly perfect basal cleavage yielding remarkably thin laminae (sheets) which are often highly elastic . Sheets of muscovite 5 m × 3 m have been found in Nellore
Nellore
, India. Muscovite
Muscovite
with beryl (var. morganite) from Paprok, Afghanistan Muscovite
Muscovite
(var. alurgite), from Prabornaz Mine, Aosta Valley, Italy Muscovite
Muscovite
has a Mohs hardness
Mohs hardness
of 2–2.25 parallel to the face, 4 perpendicular to the and a specific gravity of 2.76–3. It can be colorless or tinted through grays , browns , greens , yellows , or (rarely) violet or red , and can be transparent or translucent
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Hydrogen
HYDROGEN is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1. With a standard atomic weight of 7000100800000000000♠1.008, hydrogen is the lightest element on the periodic table . Its monatomic form (H) is the most abundant chemical substance in the Universe
Universe
, constituting roughly 75% of all baryonic mass. Non-remnant stars are mainly composed of hydrogen in the plasma state . The most common isotope of hydrogen, termed protium (name rarely used, symbol 1H), has one proton and no neutrons . The universal emergence of atomic hydrogen first occurred during the recombination epoch . At standard temperature and pressure , hydrogen is a colorless , odorless , tasteless , non-toxic, nonmetallic , highly combustible diatomic gas with the molecular formula H2. Since hydrogen readily forms covalent compounds with most nonmetallic elements, most of the hydrogen on Earth exists in molecular forms such as water or organic compounds
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Fluorine
FLUORINE is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9. It is the lightest halogen and exists as a highly toxic pale yellow diatomic gas at standard conditions . As the most electronegative element, it is extremely reactive: almost all other elements, including some noble gases , form compounds with fluorine. Among the elements, fluorine ranks 24th in universal abundance and 13th in terrestrial abundance . Fluorite , the primary mineral source of fluorine which gave the element its name, was first described in 1529; as it was added to metal ores to lower their melting points for smelting , the Latin verb fluo meaning "flow" gave the mineral its name. Proposed as an element in 1810, fluorine proved difficult and dangerous to separate from its compounds, and several early experimenters died or sustained injuries from their attempts
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Potassium Fluoride
POTASSIUM FLUORIDE is the chemical compound with the formula KF. After hydrogen fluoride , KF is the primary source of the fluoride ion for applications in manufacturing and in chemistry. It is an alkali halide and occurs naturally as the rare mineral carobbiite . Solutions of KF will etch glass due to the formation of soluble fluorosilicates, although HF is more effective. CONTENTS * 1 Preparation * 2 Applications in organic chemistry * 3 Safety considerations * 4 References PREPARATION Potassium
Potassium
fluoride is prepared by dissolving potassium carbonate in excess hydrofluoric acid . Evaporation of the solution forms crystals of potassium bifluoride . The bifluoride on heating yields potassium fluoride: K2CO3 + 4HF → 2KHF2 + CO2↑ + H2O KHF2 → KF + HF↑ The salt must not be prepared in glass or porcelain vessels as HF and the aqueous solution of KF corrode glass and porcelain
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Aluminate
In chemistry ALUMINATE is a compound containing an oxyanion of aluminium , such as sodium aluminate . In the naming of inorganic compounds it is a suffix that indicates a polyatomic anion with a central aluminum atom. CONTENTS * 1 Aluminate oxyanions * 2 Mixed oxides containing aluminium * 3 Hydroxoaluminates * 4 Aluminate glasses * 5 Applications of aluminates * 6 Aluminate suffix used in the naming of inorganic compounds * 7 Aluminates made using new raw materials * 8 Notes ALUMINATE OXYANIONS Aluminium
Aluminium
oxide (alumina) is amphoteric: it dissolves in both bases and acids. When dissolved in bases it forms hydroxyaluminate ions in the same way as aluminium hydroxide or aluminium salts. The hydroxyaluminate or hydrated aluminate can be precipitated and then calcined to produce anhydrous aluminates
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Silicate
A SILICATE is a compound containing an anionic silicon compound. The great majority of the silicates are oxides , but hexafluorosilicate (2−) and other anions are also included. " Orthosilicate
Orthosilicate
" is the anion SiO4− 4 or its compounds. Related to orthosilicate are families of anions (and their compounds) with the formula 2n−. Important members are the cyclic and single chain silicates {2−}n and the sheet-forming silicates {−}n. Silicates constitute the majority of Earth\'s crust , as well as the other terrestrial planets , rocky moons , and asteroids . Sand, Portland cement , and thousands of minerals are examples of silicates. Silicate
Silicate
compounds, including the minerals, consist of silicate anions whose charge is balanced by various cations . Myriad silicate anions can exist, and each can form compounds with many different cations. Hence this class of compounds is very large
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Oxygen
OXYGEN is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8. It is a member of the chalcogen group on the periodic table , a highly reactive nonmetal , and an oxidizing agent that readily forms oxides with most elements as well as with other compounds . By mass, oxygen is the third-most abundant element in the universe, after hydrogen and helium . At standard temperature and pressure , two atoms of the element bind to form dioxygen , a colorless and odorless diatomic gas with the formula O 2. Diatomic oxygen gas constitutes 20.8% of the Earth\'s atmosphere . As compounds including oxides, the element makes up almost half of the Earth\'s crust
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Silicon
SILICON is a chemical element with symbol SI and atomic number 14. A hard and brittle crystalline solid with a blue-gray metallic luster, it is a tetravalent metalloid . It is a member of group 14 in the periodic table, along with carbon above it and germanium , tin , lead , and flerovium below. It is not very reactive, although more reactive than carbon, and has great chemical affinity for oxygen; it was first purified and characterized in 1823 by Jöns Jakob Berzelius . Silicon
Silicon
is the eighth most common element in the universe by mass, but very rarely occurs as the pure element in the Earth's crust. It is most widely distributed in dusts , sands , planetoids , and planets as various forms of silicon dioxide (silica) or silicates . Over 90% of the Earth's crust is composed of silicate minerals , making silicon the second most abundant element in the Earth's crust (about 28% by mass) after oxygen
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Ultraviolet
ULTRAVIOLET (UV) is an electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays . UV radiation constitutes about 10% of the total light output of the Sun, and is thus present in sunlight . It is also produced by electric arcs and specialized lights, such as mercury-vapor lamps , tanning lamps , and black lights . Although it is not considered an ionizing radiation because its photons lack the energy to ionize atoms , long-wavelength ultraviolet radiation can cause chemical reactions and causes many substances to glow or fluoresce . Consequently, the biological effects of UV are greater than simple heating effects, and many practical applications of UV radiation derive from its interactions with organic molecules. Suntan , freckling and sunburn are familiar effects of over-exposure, along with higher risk of skin cancer
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Fluorescence
FLUORESCENCE is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation . It is a form of luminescence . In most cases, the emitted light has a longer wavelength , and therefore lower energy, than the absorbed radiation. The most striking example of fluorescence occurs when the absorbed radiation is in the ultraviolet region of the spectrum , and thus invisible to the human eye, while the emitted light is in the visible region, which gives the fluorescent substance a distinct color that can only be seen when exposed to UV light
UV light
. Fluorescent materials cease to glow immediately when the radiation source stops, unlike phosphorescence , where it continues to emit light for some time after
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Aluminium
ALUMINIUM or ALUMINUM (see below ) is a chemical element with symbol AL and atomic number 13. It is a silvery-white, soft, nonmagnetic, ductile metal in the boron group . By mass, aluminium makes up about 8% of the Earth\'s crust ; it is the third most abundant element after oxygen and silicon and the most abundant metal in the crust, though it is less common in the mantle below. Aluminium
Aluminium
metal is so chemically reactive that native specimens are rare and limited to extreme reducing environments. Instead, it is found combined in over 270 different minerals . The chief ore of aluminium is bauxite . Aluminium
Aluminium
is remarkable for the metal's low density and its ability to resist corrosion through the phenomenon of passivation . Aluminium and its alloys are vital to the aerospace industry and important in transportation and building industries, such as building facades and window frames
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Aluminum
ALUMINIUM or ALUMINUM (see below ) is a chemical element with symbol AL and atomic number 13. It is a silvery-white, soft, nonmagnetic, ductile metal in the boron group . By mass, aluminium makes up about 8% of the Earth\'s crust ; it is the third most abundant element after oxygen and silicon and the most abundant metal in the crust, though it is less common in the mantle below. Aluminium
Aluminium
metal is so chemically reactive that native specimens are rare and limited to extreme reducing environments. Instead, it is found combined in over 270 different minerals . The chief ore of aluminium is bauxite . Aluminium
Aluminium
is remarkable for the metal's low density and its ability to resist corrosion through the phenomenon of passivation . Aluminium and its alloys are vital to the aerospace industry and important in transportation and building industries, such as building facades and window frames
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Hydrate
In chemistry , a HYDRATE is a substance that contains water or its constituent elements. The chemical state of the water varies widely between different classes of hydrates, some of which were so labeled before their chemical structure was understood. CONTENTS* 1 Chemical nature * 1.1 Organic chemistry * 1.2 Inorganic chemistry * 1.3 Clathrate hydrates * 2 Stability * 3 See also * 4 References CHEMICAL NATUREORGANIC CHEMISTRYIn organic chemistry, a hydrate is a compound formed by the addition of water or its elements to another molecule. For example, ethanol , CH3–CH2–OH, is the product of the hydration reaction of ethene , CH2=CH2, formed by the addition of H to one C and OH to the other C, and so can be considered as the hydrate of ethene
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Basal Cleavage
CLEAVAGE, in mineralogy , is the tendency of crystalline materials to split along definite crystallographic structural planes. These planes of relative weakness are a result of the regular locations of atoms and ions in the crystal, which create smooth repeating surfaces that are visible both in the microscope and to the naked eye. CONTENTS * 1 Types of cleavage * 2 Parting * 3 Uses * 4 See also * 5 References TYPES OF CLEAVAGE Miller indices {h k ℓ} Cleavage forms parallel to crystallographic planes: * BASAL OR PINACOIDAL CLEAVAGE occurs when there is only one cleavage plane. Graphite has basal cleavage. Mica (like muscovite or biotite) also has basal cleavage; this is why mica can be peeled into thin sheets. * CUBIC CLEAVAGE occurs on when there are three cleavage planes intersecting at 90 degrees
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Green
GREEN is the color between blue and yellow on the visible spectrum . It is evoked by light which has a dominant wavelength of roughly 495–570 nm . In subtractive color systems, used in painting and color printing, it is created by a combination of yellow and blue, or yellow and cyan ; in the RGB color model
RGB color model
, used on television and computer screens, it is one of the additive primary colors , along with red and blue, which are mixed in different combinations to create all other colors. By far the largest contributor to green in nature is chlorophyll , the chemical by which plants photosynthesize and convert sunlight into chemical energy. Many creatures have adapted to their green environments by taking on a green hue themselves as camouflage . Several minerals have a green color, including the emerald , which is colored green by its chromium content
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Yellow
YELLOW is the color between green and orange on the spectrum of visible light. It is evoked by light with a predominant wavelength of roughly 570–590 nm . In traditional color theory, used in painting, and in the subtractive color system, used in color printing, yellow is a primary color . In the RGB color model , used to create colors on television and computer screens, yellow is a secondary color made by combining red and green at equal intensity. The word yellow comes from the Old English geolu, geolwe (oblique case ), meaning "yellow, yellowish", derived from the Proto-Germanic word gelwaz "yellow". It has the same Indo-European base, gʰel-, as the words gold and yell, or "cry out." According to surveys in Europe, Canada, and the United States, yellow is the color people most often associate with amusement, gentleness, and spontaneity, but also with duplicity, envy, jealousy, avarice, and, in the U.S., with cowardice
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