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Muhandiram
Muhandiram
Muhandiram
(Sinhalese: මුහන්දිරම්, Tamil: முகாந்திரம்) was a post in the native headmen system in the lower-country (coastal districts) of Ceylon
Ceylon
(Sri Lanka) during the colonial era. It was awarded as a title of honor until suspension of Celonese honors in 1956.Contents1 History 2 Ranks of the British Muhandirams 3 List of prominent Muhandirams3.1 Official3.1.1 Madige Muhandiram3.2 Awarded as an honor (titular)3.2.1 Muhandiram
Muhandiram
of the Governor's Gate 3.2.2 Muhandiram4 See also 5 ReferencesHistory[edit] The post originated from the Portuguese colonial administration in the 17th century by enlisting natives of different castes form the coastal areas
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Sinhalese Language
Sinhalese (/ˌsɪn(h)əˈliːz, ˌsɪŋ(ɡ)ə-/), known natively as Sinhala (Sinhalese: සිංහල; siṁhala [ˈsiŋɦələ]),[3] is the native language of the Sinhalese people, who make up the largest ethnic group in Sri Lanka, numbering about 16 million.[4][5][6] Sinhalese is also spoken as a second language by other ethnic groups in Sri Lanka, totalling about four million.[7] It belongs to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages.[5] Sinhalese is written using the Sinhalese script, which is one of the Brahmic scripts, a descendant of the ancient Indian Brahmi script
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Walauwa
Walauwa
Walauwa
is the name given to a feudal/colonial manor house in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) of a native headmen. It is also reference to the feudal social systems that existed during the colonial era.Meeduma Walauwa, RambukkanaSitting room of Meeduma Walauwa, Rambukkana, Sri LankaContents1 Kandyan Walauwas 2 Other Prominent Kandyan Walauwas 3 Sathara Korale Walauwas 4 Sath Korale Walauwa 5 Prominent Low-Country Walauwas 6 Decline and current states 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External linksKandyan Walauwas[edit] There were 18 main walauwas in the Kandyan Kingdom
Kandyan Kingdom
of Ceylon
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Native Headmen Of Ceylon
The Headmen is a group of fictional supervillains appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics.Contents1 Publication history 2 Fictional team biography 3 Members 4 References 5 External linksPublication history[edit] The Headmen first appeared (as a team) in The Defenders #21 (March 1975) and were created by Steve Gerber, Sal Buscema, and Sal Trapani. Fictional team biography[edit] The Headmen are a group who believe that they should rule the world by virtue of the intellect. Dr. Arthur Nagan wanted society to operate like a precision instrument, Dr. Jerry Morgan wanted a society where his genius was recognized, Chondu the Mystic wanted personal wealth and Ruby Thursday wanted to replace the head of every human with a plastic head of her own design
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Ceylon
Coordinates: 7°N 81°E / 7°N 81°E / 7; 81Democratic Socialist Republic
Republic
of Sri Lanka ශ්‍රී ලංකා ප්‍රජාතාන්ත්‍රික සමාජවාදී ජනරජය (Sinhalese) Srī Lankā prajātāntrika samājavādī janarajaya இலங்கை ஜனநாயக சோசலிச குடியரசு (Tamil) Ilaṅkai jaṉanāyaka sōsalisa kuṭiyarasuFlagEmblemAnthem: "Sri
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Portugal
Portugal
Portugal
(Portuguese pronunciation: [puɾtuˈɣaɫ]), officially the Portuguese Republic
Republic
(Portuguese: República Portuguesa [ʁɛˈpuβlikɐ puɾtuˈɣezɐ]),[note 1] is a sovereign state located mostly on the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
in southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost country of mainland Europe, bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
and to the north and east by Spain
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Caste System In Sri Lanka
In Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
a caste-based social stratification system can be seen among its two major ethnic groups (the Sinhalese and the Tamils). A caste system was extensive from the ancient history of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
to the colonial era
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Dutch East India Company
The Dutch East India
East India
Company
Company
(Dutch: Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie abbreviated to VOC), was a publicly tradable corporation that was founded in 1602 and became defunct in 1799. It was originally established as a chartered company to trade with India
India
and Indianized Southeast Asian countries when the Dutch government granted it a 21-year monopoly on the Dutch spice trade. The VOC was an early multinational corporation in its modern sense. In the early 1600s, by widely issuing bonds and shares of stock to the general public,[note 5] the VOC became the world's first formally listed public company.[note 6] In other words, it was the first corporation to be ever actually listed on an official stock exchange.[note 7][6] The VOC was influential in the rise of corporate-led globalization in the early modern period
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Government Agent (Sri Lanka)
A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state.[1] In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists of legislature, executive, and judiciary. Government
Government
is a means by which state policies are enforced, as well as a mechanism for determining the policy. Each government has a kind of constitution, a statement of its governing principles and philosophy. Typically the philosophy chosen is some balance between the principle of individual freedom and the idea of absolute state authority (tyranny). While all types of organizations have governance, the word government is often used more specifically to refer to the approximately 200 independent national governments on Earth, as well as subsidiary organizations.[2] Historically prevalent forms of government include aristocracy, timocracy, oligarchy, democracy, theocracy and tyranny
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Korale
A Korale was formerly a revenue district in Ceylon
Ceylon
(Sri Lanka). During the British colonial administration, a low country korale was under the purview of a Mudaliyar while an upcountry korale came under the purview of a post that was itself known as Korale.[1][2] See also[edit]Divisional Secretariats of Sri LankaReferences[edit]^ Nur Yalman (1967). Under the Bo Tree; Studies in Caste, Kinship, and Marriage in the Interior of Ceylon. University of California Press. pp. 157–. GGKEY:T4JA247ECCZ.  ^ Dilesh Jayanntha (2 November 2006). Electoral Allegiance in Sri Lanka. Cambridge University Press
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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Tamil Language
 Sri Lanka  Singapore  India:Tamil Nadu[3] Puducherry[4] Andaman & Nicobar Islands[5]Recognised minority language in Malaysia[6]  Mauritius[7]  South Africa[8]Language codesISO 639-1 taISO 639-2 tamISO 639-3 Variously: tam – Modern Tamil oty – Old Tamil ptq – Pattapu BhashaiLinguist Listoty Old TamilGlottolog tamil1289  Modern Tamil[9] oldt1248  Old Tamil[10]Linguasphere 49-EBE-aThis article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.This article contains Indic text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks or boxes, misplaced vowels or missing conjuncts instead of Indic text.Tamil is written in a non-Latin script
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Kastane
Kastane
Kastane
is a short traditional ceremonial/decorative single-edged sword of Sri Lanka.[1] Kastanes often have elaborate hilts, especially shaped and described as a rich mythical style inherited from Buddhism in blending a variety of Icons including, Lions, Kirtimukha Serapendiya, Nagas, crocodile/human monsters and other dragon and gargoyle like effigies. Some appear seemingly emitted onto the hand guard and cross guard with Vajra
Vajra
style pseudo-quillons whose finials are also decorated by minor monsters and a rain-guard decorated by the Makara or Serapendiya peacock tail or fish scales which occasionally flows over and onto the blade at the throat. The scabbard is occasionally seen with a miniature beasts head at the chape also emitting an icon or cloud pattern
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Sri Lankan Mudaliyars
Mudali (or Mudaliyar) was a colonial title and office in Ceylon
Ceylon
(now Sri Lanka). The Portuguese colonials created the Mudaliyar class in the 17th century by enlisting natives of different castes from the coastal areas.[1] The Dutch continued the practice of the Portuguese. This class used the Mudali as a hereditary title, however the British re-established a Mudaliyar class, with appointments that had the title of Mudali, this process was stopped in the 1930s when the Native Department of the British government of Ceylon
Ceylon
was closed down.[2] All Official and Titular appointments of Mudaliyars were made by the Governor of Ceylon
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Great Rebellion Of 1817–18
The Great Rebellion of 1817–18, also known as the 1818 Uva–Wellassa uprising (after the two places it had started), or simply the Uva rebellion, was the third Kandyan War with the British, in what is now Sri Lanka
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Andiris Perera Dharmagunawardhana
Muhandiram Lansage Andiris Perera Dharmagunawardhana (19 November 1809 – 24 January 1890) was a Sri Lankan businessman, a philanthropist and a pioneer of the Buddhist revival movement. He was the grandfather of Anagarika Dharmapala.[1] He owned extensive land on the hill of Maligakanda, in present-day Maradana, Colombo, as well as two shops in Pettah, Colombo.Lady Mallika DharmagunawardhanaIn 1860, he gave his daughter, Mallika, in marriage to Don Carolis Hewavitharana
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