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Mount Tambora
Mount Tambora
Mount Tambora
(or Tomboro[3]) is an active stratovolcano on Sumbawa, one of the Lesser Sunda Islands
Lesser Sunda Islands
of Indonesia. Sumbawa
Sumbawa
is flanked to the north and south by oceanic crust. It was formed due to the active subduction zones beneath it, and before its 1815 eruption, was more than 4,300 metres (14,100 feet) high, making it then one of the tallest peaks in the Indonesian archipelago. The large magma chamber under Tambora had been drained by pre-1815 eruptions and underwent several centuries of dormancy as it refilled. Volcanic activity reached a peak that year,[4] when Tambora erupted. With a Volcanic Explosivity Index
Volcanic Explosivity Index
of 7, the eruption was the largest since the Taupo eruption in 181 AD,[5] and the largest in recorded history
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Summit
A summit is a point on a surface that is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it. Mathematically, a summit is a local maximum in elevation. The topographic terms "acme", "apex", "peak", and "zenith" are synonymous.Contents1 Definition1.1 Western United States 1.2 Summit
Summit
climbing equipment2 See also 3 References 4 External linksDefinition[edit] The term "top" is generally used only for a mountain peak that is located some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are often considered subsummits (or subpeaks) of the higher peak, and are considered as part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top
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Cashew
The cashew tree ( Anacardium
Anacardium
occidentale) is a tropical evergreen tree that produces the cashew seed and the cashew apple.[1] It can grow as high as 14 m (46 ft), but the dwarf cashew, growing up to 6 m (20 ft), has proved more profitable, with earlier maturity and higher yields. The species is originally native to northeastern Brazil.[1] Portuguese colonists in Brazil
Brazil
began exporting cashew nuts as early as the 1550s.[2] Major production of cashews occurs in Vietnam, Nigeria, India, and Ivory Coast.[3] The cashew nut, often simply called a cashew, is widely consumed. It is eaten on its own, used in recipes, or processed into cashew cheese or cashew butter
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High Island
In geology (and sometimes in archaeology), a high island or volcanic island is an island of volcanic origin. The term can be used to distinguish such islands from low islands, which are formed from sedimentation or the uplifting of coral reefs[1] (which have often formed on sunken volcanos).Contents1 Definition and origin 2 Habitability for humans 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksDefinition and origin[edit] There are a number of "high islands" which rise no more than a few feet above sea level, often classified as "islets or rocks", while some "low islands", such as Makatea, Nauru, Niue, Henderson and Banaba, as uplifted coral islands, rise several hundred feet above sea level. The two types of islands are often found in proximity to each other, especially among the islands of the South Pacific Ocean, where low islands are found on the fringing reefs that surround most high islands
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Archipelago
An archipelago (/ɑːrkɪˈpɛləɡoʊ/ ( listen) ark-i-PEL-ə-goh), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea containing a small number of scattered islands. The word archipelago is derived from the Greek ἄρχι- – arkhi- ("chief") and πέλαγος – pélagos ("sea") through the Italian arcipelago. In Italian, possibly following a tradition of antiquity, the Archipelago
Archipelago
(from medieval Greek *ἀρχιπέλαγος and Latin archipelagus) was the proper name for the Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
and, later, usage shifted to refer to the Aegean Islands
Aegean Islands
(since the sea is remarkable for its large number of islands).Contents1 Types 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksTypes[edit] Archipelagos may be found isolated in large amounts of water or neighbouring a large land mass
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Peninsula
A peninsula (Latin: paeninsula from paene "almost” and insula "island") is a piece of land surrounded by water on the majority of its border, while being connected to a mainland from which it extends. Examples are the Upper and Lower peninsulas of the U.S. state of Michigan, the Scandinavian Peninsula
Scandinavian Peninsula
and the Malay peninsula.[1][2][3][4] The surrounding water is usually understood to be continuous, though not necessarily named as a single body of water. Peninsulas are not always named as such; one can also be a headland, cape, island promontory, bill, point, or spit.[5] A point is generally considered a tapering piece of land projecting into a body of water that is less prominent than a cape.[6] A river which courses through a very tight meander is also sometimes said to form a "peninsula" within the (almost closed) loop of water
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Flores Sea
The Flores
Flores
Sea covers 240,000 square kilometres (93,000 sq mi) of water in Indonesia.Contents1 Geography1.1 Extent2 External links 3 ReferencesGeography[edit] The seas that border the Flores
Flores

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Seismologist
Seismology
Seismology
( /saɪzˈmɒlədʒi/; from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
σεισμός (seismós) meaning "earthquake" and -λογία (-logía) meaning "study of") is the scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the Earth
Earth
or through other planet-like bodies. The field also includes studies of earthquake environmental effects such as tsunamis as well as diverse seismic sources such as volcanic, tectonic, oceanic, atmospheric, and artificial processes such as explosions. A related field that uses geology to infer information regarding past earthquakes is paleoseismology. A recording of earth motion as a function of time is called a seismogram
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Vulcanologist
A volcanologist or vulcanologist is a geologist who studies the processes involved in the formation and eruptive activity of volcanoes and their current and historic eruptions, known as volcanology. Volcanologists frequently visit volcanoes, especially active ones, to observe volcanic eruptions, collect eruptive products including tephra (such as ash or pumice), rock and lava samples. One major focus of inquiry is the prediction of eruptions; there is currently no accurate way to do this, but predicting eruptions could alleviate the impact on surrounding populations. Notable volcanologists[edit] Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon
Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon
(1707–1788) Déodat Gratet de Dolomieu
Déodat Gratet de Dolomieu
(1750–1801) Frank A. Perret
Frank A. Perret
(1867–1943) George P. L
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Archaeologist
Archaeology, or archeology,[1] is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. The archaeological record consists of artifacts, architecture, biofacts or ecofacts, and cultural landscapes. Archaeology
Archaeology
can be considered both a social science and a branch of the humanities.[2][3] In North America, archaeology is considered a sub-field of anthropology,[4] while in Europe
Europe
archaeology is often viewed as either a discipline in its own right or a sub-field of other disciplines. Archaeologists study human prehistory and history, from the development of the first stone tools at Lomekwi
Lomekwi
in East Africa
Africa
3.3 million years ago up until recent decades. Archaeology
Archaeology
as a field is distinct from the discipline of palaeontology, the study of fossil remains
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Biologist
A biologist, is a scientist who has specialized knowledge in the field of biology, the scientific study of life.[2] Biologists involved in fundamental research attempt to explore and further explain the underlying mechanisms that govern the functioning of living matter. Biologists involved in applied research attempt to develop or improve more specific processes and understanding, in fields such as medicine and industry. While the term biologist can apply to any scientist studying biology, most biologists research and specialise in specific fields. In this way, biologists investigate large-scale organism interactions, whole multicellular organisms, organs, tissues, cells, and micro-scale molecular processes
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Hiking
Hiking
Hiking
is the preferred term, in Canada and the United States, for a long, vigorous walk, usually on trails (footpaths), in the countryside, while the word walking is used for shorter, particularly urban walks. On the other hand, in the United Kingdom, and the Republic of Ireland, the word "walking" is acceptable to describe all forms of walking, whether it is a walk in the park or backpacking in the Alps. The word hiking is also often used in the UK, along with rambling (a slightly old-fashioned term), hillwalking, and fell walking (a term mostly used for hillwalking in northern England)
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Java Trench
The Sunda Trench, earlier known as and sometimes still indicated as the Java Trench,[1] is an oceanic trench located in the Indian Ocean near Sumatra, formed where the Australian-Capricorn plates subduct under a part of the Eurasian Plate. It is 3,200 kilometres (2,000 mi) long.[2] Its maximum depth 7,725 metres (25,344 ft)[3] (at 10°19'S, 109°58'E, about 320 km south of Yogyakarta), is the deepest point in the Indian Ocean. The trench stretches from the Lesser Sunda Islands past Java, around the southern coast of Sumatra on to the Andaman Islands, and forms the boundary between Indo-Australian Plate and Eurasian plate (more specifically, Sunda Plate)
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Topographic Prominence
In topography, prominence[a] characterizes the height of a mountain or hill's summit by the vertical distance between it and the lowest contour line encircling it but containing no higher summit within it. It is a measure of the independence of a summit. A peak's key col is a unique point on this contour line and the parent peak is some higher mountain, selected according to various objective criteria.Contents1 Definitions 2 Illustration 3 In mountaineering 4 Parent peak4.1 Encirclement or island parentage 4.2 Prominence parentage 4.3 Line parentage 4.4 Other criteria5 Issues in choice of summit and key col 6 Interesting prominence situations 7 Calculations and mathematics 8 Wet prominence and dry prominence 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 External linksDefinitions[edit]Figure 1. Vertical arrows show the topographic prominence of three peaks on an island. The dashed horizontal lines show the lowest contours that do not encircle higher peaks
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Before Present
Before Present (BP) years is a time scale used mainly in geology and other scientific disciplines to specify when events occurred in the past. Because the "present" time changes, standard practice is to use 1 January 1950 as the commencement date of the age scale, reflecting the origin of practical radiocarbon dating in the 1950s
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Sea Basin
In hydrology, an oceanic basin may be anywhere on Earth that is covered by seawater but geologically ocean basins are large geologic basins that are below sea level. Geologically, there are other undersea geomorphological features such as the continental shelves, the deep ocean trenches, and the undersea mountain ranges (for example, the mid-Atlantic ridge and the Emperor Seamounts) which are not considered to be part of the ocean basins; while hydrologically, oceanic basins include the flanking continental shelves and shallow, epeiric seas.Contents1 History 2 See also 3 Notes 4 Further reading 5 External linksHistory[edit] Older references (e.g., Littlehales 1930)[1] consider the oceanic basins to be the complement to the continents, with erosion dominating the latter, and the sediments so derived ending up in the ocean basins
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