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Mount Giluwe
Mount Giluwe
Mount Giluwe
is the second highest mountain in Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
at 4,367 metres (14,327 ft) ( Mount Wilhelm
Mount Wilhelm
being the highest). It is located in the Southern Highlands province and is an old shield volcano with vast alpine grasslands. Ancient volcanic plugs form its two summits, with the central peak the highest and an east peak about 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) away at 4,300 m (14,108 ft). Giluwe has the distinction of being the highest volcano on the Australian continent and Oceania, and is thus one of the Volcanic Seven Summits.[4][5]Contents1 Geology 2 History 3 Flora and fauna 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksGeology[edit] The original volcano on the site of Mount Giluwe
Mount Giluwe
formed roughly 650,000–800,000 years ago, probably as a stratovolcano of similar height to the current peak
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Summit
A summit is a point on a surface that is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it. Mathematically, a summit is a local maximum in elevation. The topographic terms "acme", "apex", "peak", and "zenith" are synonymous.Contents1 Definition1.1 Western United States 1.2 Summit
Summit
climbing equipment2 See also 3 References 4 External linksDefinition[edit] The term "top" is generally used only for a mountain peak that is located some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are often considered subsummits (or subpeaks) of the higher peak, and are considered as part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top
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Royal Geographical Society
The Royal Geographical Society
Royal Geographical Society
(with the Institute of British Geographers) is the UK's learned society and professional body for geography, founded in 1830 for the advancement of geographical sciences. Today, it is the leading centre for geographers and geographical learning
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Nunatak
A nunatak (from Inuit nunataq) is an exposed, often rocky element of a ridge, mountain, or peak not covered with ice or snow within (or at the edge of) an ice field or glacier. They are also called glacial islands.[2] Examples are natural pyramidal peaks. The word is of Greenlandic origin[3] and has been used in English since the 1870s.Contents1 Description 2 List 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksDescription[edit] The term is typically used in areas where a permanent ice sheet is present and the nunataks protrude above the sheet.[4] Nunataks present readily identifiable landmark reference points in glaciers or ice caps and are often named
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Outlet Glacier
Glacier
Glacier
morphology, or the form a glacier takes, is influenced by temperature, precipitation, topography, and other factors. Types of glaciers range from massive ice sheets, such as the Greenland
Greenland
ice sheet or those in Antarctica, to small cirque glaciers perched on a mountain. Glaciers can be grouped into two main categories, based on whether ice flow is constrained by the underlying bedrock topography.Contents1 Unconstrained1.1 Ice sheets and ice caps 1.2 Ice domes 1.3 Ice streams2 Constrained2.1 Icefield 2.2 Outlet glaciers 2.3 Valley glaciers 2.4 Piedmont glaciers 2.5 Cirque glaciers3 References 4 External linksUnconstrained[edit] Vatnajökull
Vatnajökull
ice cap in IcelandIce sheets and ice caps[edit] Ice sheets and ice caps cover vast areas and are unconstrained by the underlying topography having a radial flow
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Glacial Till
Till
Till
or glacial till is unsorted glacial sediment. Till
Till
is derived from the erosion and entrainment of material by the moving ice of a glacier. It is deposited some distance down-ice to form terminal, lateral, medial and ground moraines. Till
Till
is classified into primary deposits, laid down directly by glaciers, and secondary deposits, reworked by fluvial transport and other processes.Contents1 Processes 2 Tillite 3 Types 4 See also 5 ReferencesProcesses[edit] Glacial drift is the coarsely graded and extremely heterogeneous sediment of a glacier; till is the part of glacial drift deposited directly by the glacier. Its content may vary from clays to mixtures of clay, sand, gravel, and boulders. This material is mostly derived from the subglacial erosion and entrainment by the moving ice of the glaciers of previously available unconsolidated sediments
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Moraine
A moraine is any glacially formed accumulation of unconsolidated glacial debris (regolith and rock) that occurs in both currently and formerly glaciated regions on Earth (i.e. a past glacial maximum), through geomorphological processes. Moraines are formed from debris previously carried along by a glacier and normally consist of somewhat rounded particles ranging in size from large boulders to minute glacial flour. Lateral moraines are formed at the side of the ice flow and terminal moraines at the foot, marking the maximum advance of the glacier
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Cirque (landform)
A cirque (French, from the Latin word circus) is an amphitheatre-like valley formed by glacial erosion. Alternative names for this landform are corrie (from Scottish Gaelic coire meaning a pot or cauldron) and cwm (Welsh for "valley", pronounced /kʊm/ coom). A cirque may also be a similarly shaped landform arising from fluvial erosion. The concave shape of a glacial cirque is open on the downhill side, while the cupped section is generally steep. Cliff-like slopes, down which ice and glaciated debris combine and converge, form the three or more higher sides. The floor of the cirque ends up bowl-shaped as it is the complex convergence zone of combining ice flows from multiple directions and their accompanying rock burdens: hence it experiences somewhat greater erosion forces, and is most often overdeepened below the level of the cirque's low-side outlet (stage) and its down slope (backstage) valley
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U-shaped Valley
U-shaped valleys, trough valleys or glacial troughs, are formed by the process of glaciation. They are characteristic of mountain glaciation in particular.[1] They have a characteristic U shape, with steep, straight sides and a flat or rounded bottom (by contrast, valleys carved by rivers tend to be V-shaped in cross-section). Glaciated valleys are formed when a glacier travels across and down a slope, carving the valley by the action of scouring.[2] When the ice recedes or thaws, the valley remains, often littered with small boulders that were transported within the ice, called glacial till or glacial erratic. Examples of U-valleys are found in mountainous regions like the Alps, Himalaya, Rocky mountains, Scottish Highlands, Scandinavia, New Zealand and Canada. A classic glacial trough is in Glacier National Park in Montana, USA in which the St. Mary River runs
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Frost
Frost
Frost
is the coating or deposit of ice that may form in humid air in cold conditions, usually overnight.[1] In temperate climates, it most commonly appears as fragile white crystals or frozen dew drops near the ground, but in cold climates, it occurs in a greater variety of forms.[2] Frost
Frost
is composed of delicate, branched patterns of ice crystals that formed as the result of fractal process development. The formation of frost is an indication that the air temperature has fallen below the freezing point of water, and plants that have evolved in warmer climates are known to suffer damage when the temperature falls low enough to freeze the water in the cells that make up the plant tissue. The tissue damage resulting from this process is known as "frost damage"
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Snowfall
Snow
Snow
refers to forms of ice crystals that precipitate from the atmosphere (usually from clouds) and undergo changes on the Earth's surface.[2] It pertains to frozen crystalline water throughout its life cycle, starting when, under suitable conditions, the ice crystals form in the atmosphere, increase to millimeter size, precipitate and accumulate on surfaces, then metamorphose in place, and ultimately melt, slide or sublimate away. Snowstorms
Snowstorms
organize and develop by feeding on sources of atmospheric moisture and cold air. Snowflakes nucleate around particles in the atmosphere by attracting supercooled water droplets, which freeze in hexagonal-shaped crystals. Snowflakes take on a variety of shapes, basic among these are platelets, needles, columns and rime. As snow accumulates into a snowpack, it may blow into drifts. Over time, accumulated snow metamorphoses, by sintering, sublimation and freeze-thaw
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Jack Hides
Jack Gordon Hides (24 June 1906 – 19 June 1938) was an explorer of the then-Australian-controlled territories of Papua and New Guinea, now modern Papua New Guinea. He served as a Patrol Officer from 1931 to 1936, and led several expeditions in the early 1930s.Contents1 Life1.1 1935 expedition 1.2 Final expedition and death2 Writings2.1 Books 2.2 Magazines3 Notes 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksLife[edit] He was born in Port Moresby, the son of the head gaoler of the Port Moresby Gaol. He received a limited education at schools in Port Moresby and Queensland. He was a good swimmer, sprinter, and amateur boxer. In 1932 he married in Australia and later became the father of two children.[1] His first work in the Papuan public service was in July 1925, and in May 1926 he transferred to a cadet patrol officer. In February 1928 he became a Patrol Officer, and in 1934 became Assistant Resident Magistrate, 2nd grade, serving at various bases until 1936
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London
London
London
(/ˈlʌndən/ ( listen)) is the capital and most populous city of England
England
and the United Kingdom.[7][8] Standing on the River Thames
River Thames
in the south east of the island of Great Britain, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. It was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium.[9] London's ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1.12-square-mile (2.9 km2) medieval boundaries
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Biome
A biome /ˈbaɪoʊm/ is a community of plants and animals that have common characteristics for the environment they exist in. They can be found over a range of continents. Biomes are distinct biological communities that have formed in response to a shared physical climate.[1][2] "Biome" is a broader term than "habitat"; any biome can comprise a variety of habitats. While a biome can cover large areas, a microbiome is a mix of organisms that coexist in a defined space on a much smaller scale. For example, the human microbiome is the collection of bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms that are present on a human body.[3] A 'biota' is the total collection of organisms of a geographic region or a time period, from local geographic scales and instantaneous temporal scales all the way up to whole-planet and whole-timescale spatiotemporal scales
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Ice Age
An ice age is a period of long-term reduction in the temperature of Earth's surface and atmosphere, resulting in the presence or expansion of continental and polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers. Within a long-term ice age, individual pulses of cold climate are termed "glacial periods" (or alternatively "glacials" or "glaciations" or colloquially as "ice age"), and intermittent warm periods are called "interglacials". In the terminology of glaciology, ice age implies the presence of extensive ice sheets in both northern and southern hemispheres.[1] By this definition, we are in an interglacial period—the Holocene—of the ice age
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Montane Grasslands And Shrublands
Montane grasslands and shrublands
Montane grasslands and shrublands
is a biome defined by the World Wildlife Fund. The biome includes high altitude grasslands and shrublands around the world. The term "montane" in the name of the biome refers to "high altitude", rather than the ecological term which denotes the region below treeline. Montane grasslands and shrublands
Montane grasslands and shrublands
located above the tree line are commonly known as alpine tundra, which occurs in mountain regions around the world. Below the tree line are subalpine and montane grasslands and shrublands
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