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Mosaic
A mosaic is a piece of art or image made from the assemblage of small pieces of colored glass, stone, or other materials. It is often used in decorative art or as interior decoration. Most mosaics are made of small, flat, roughly square, pieces of stone or glass of different colors, known as tesserae. Some, especially floor mosaics, are made of small rounded pieces of stone, and called "pebble mosaics". Mosaics have a long history, starting in Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in the 3rd millennium BC. Pebble mosaics were made in Tiryns
Tiryns
in Mycenean Greece; mosaics with patterns and pictures became widespread in classical times, both in Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece
and Ancient Rome. Early Christian basilicas from the 4th century onwards were decorated with wall and ceiling mosaics
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Susa
Susa
Susa
(/ˈsuːsə/; Persian: شوش‬‎ Šuš; [ʃuʃ]; Hebrew: שׁוּשָׁן‬ Šušān; Greek: Σοῦσα [ˈsuːsa]; Syriac: ܫܘܫ‎ Šuš; Old Persian
Old Persian
Çūšā) was an ancient city of the Proto-Elamite, Elamite, First Persian Empire, Seleucid, and Parthian empires of Iran, and one of the most important cities of the Ancient Near East. It is located in the lower Zagros Mountains
Zagros Mountains
about 250 km (160 mi) east of the Tigris River, between the Karkheh and Dez Rivers. The modern Iranian town of Shush is located at the site of ancient Susa. Shush is the administrative capital of the Shush County
Shush County
of Iran's Khuzestan
Khuzestan
province
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Norman Dynasty
Illegitimate lines:House of Devereux, Viscounts Hereford House of FitzRobert, Earls of Gloucester House of Dunstanville, Earls of Cornwall^ The House of Normandy
Normandy
became extinct before the age of heraldry.The House of Normandy
Normandy
is the usual designation for the family that were the Counts of Rouen, Dukes of Normandy
Dukes of Normandy
and Kings of England which immediately followed the Norman conquest of England
Norman conquest of England
and lasted until the House of Plantagenet
House of Plantagenet
came to power in 1154. It included the Viking Rollo
Rollo
and his descendants, and William the Conqueror
William the Conqueror
and his heirs down through 1135
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Kasta Tomb
The Kasta Tomb, also known as the Amphipolis
Amphipolis
Tomb
Tomb
(Greek: Τάφος της Αμφίπολης), is an ancient Macedonian tomb that was discovered inside the Kasta mound (or tumulus) near Amphipolis, Central Macedonia, in northern Greece
Greece
in 2012 and first entered in August 2014.[2] The first excavations at the mound in 1964 led to exposure of the perimeter wall, and further excavations in the 1970s uncovered many other ancient remains.[3] The recently discovered tomb is dated to the last quarter of the 4th century B.C
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Bronze Age
The Bronze
Bronze
Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization. The Bronze
Bronze
Age is the second principal period of the three-age Stone-Bronze- Iron
Iron
system, as proposed in modern times by Christian Jürgensen Thomsen, for classifying and studying ancient societies. An ancient civilization is defined to be in the Bronze
Bronze
Age either by producing bronze by smelting its own copper and alloying with tin, arsenic, or other metals, or by trading for bronze from production areas elsewhere
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Aegae (Macedon)
Vergina
Vergina
(Greek: Βεργίνα [verˈʝina]) is a small town in northern Greece, part of Veroia
Veroia
municipality in Imathia, Central Macedonia. Vergina
Vergina
was established in 1922 in the aftermath of the population exchanges after the Treaty of Lausanne
Treaty of Lausanne
and was a separate municipality until 2011, when it was merged with Veroia
Veroia
under the Kallikratis Plan. It is now a municipal unit within Veroia, with an area 69.047 km2.[2] Vergina
Vergina
is best known as the site of ancient Aigai (Αἰγαί, Latinized Aegae), the first capital of Macedon. It was there when in 336 BC Philip II was assassinated in the theatre and Alexander the Great was proclaimed king
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Damascus
Damascus
Damascus
(/dəˈmæskəs/; Arabic: دمشق‎ Dimashq [diˈmaʃq], Syrian: [dˈməʃe(ː)ʔ]) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is likely also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo
Aleppo
due to the battle for the city. It is commonly known in Syria
Syria
as ash-Sham (Arabic: الشام‎ ash-Shām) and nicknamed as the City of Jasmine
Jasmine
(Arabic: مدينة الياسمين‎ Madīnat al-Yāsmīn). In addition to being one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world,[4] Damascus
Damascus
is a major cultural centre of the Levant
Levant
and the Arab world
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Umayyad Mosque
The Umayyad Mosque, also known as the Great Mosque
Mosque
of Damascus (Arabic: جامع بني أمية الكبير‎, Romanization: Ğāmi' Banī 'Umayya al-Kabīr), located in the old city of Damascus, is one of the largest and oldest mosques in the world. It is considered by some[clarification needed] Muslims
Muslims
to be the fourth-holiest place in Islam.[1][2] After the Muslim
Muslim
conquest of Damascus
Damascus
in 634, the mosque was built on the site of a Christian basilica dedicated to John the Baptist (Yahya), honored as a prophet by Christians and Muslims. A legend dating to the 6th century holds that the building contains the head of John the Baptist. The mosque is also believed by Muslims
Muslims
to be the place where Jesus
Jesus
(Isa) will return at the End of Days
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Shapur I
Shapur I
Shapur I
(Middle Persian: 𐭱𐭧𐭯𐭥𐭧𐭥𐭩‎; New Persian: شاپور‎), also known as Shapur I
Shapur I
the Great, was the second shahanshah (king of kings) of the Sasanian Empire. The dates of his reign are commonly given as 240/42 – 270/72, but it is likely that he also reigned as co-regent (together with his father) prior to his father's death in 242 (more probably than 240).[3] Shapur I's rule was marked by successful military and political struggles in the northeastern regions and the Caucasus, and two wars with the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
during the second of which he captured the Roman Emperor Valerian
Emperor Valerian
and his entire army at the Battle of Edessa
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Middle East
The Middle East[note 1] is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey
Turkey
(both Asian and European), and Egypt
Egypt
(which is mostly in North Africa). The corresponding adjective is Middle Eastern and the derived noun is Middle Easterner. The term has come into wider usage as a replacement of the term Near East
Near East
(as opposed to the Far East) beginning in the early 20th century. Arabs, Turks, Persians, Kurds, and Azeris (excluding Azerbaijan) constitute the largest ethnic groups in the region by population.[2] Minorities of the Middle East
Middle East
include Jews, Baloch, Greeks, Assyrians, and other Arameans, Berbers, Circassians
Circassians
(including Kabardians), Copts, Druze, Lurs, Mandaeans, Samaritans, Shabaks, Tats, and Zazas. In the Middle East, there is also a Romani community
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Raphael
Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino[2] (Italian: [raffaˈɛllo ˈsantsjo da urˈbiːno]; March 28 or April 6, 1483 – April 6, 1520),[3] known as Raphael
Raphael
(/ˈræfeɪəl/, US: /ˈræfiəl, ˌrɑːfaɪˈɛl/), was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance. His work is admired for its clarity of form, ease of composition, and visual achievement of the Neoplatonic ideal of human grandeur.[4] Together with Michelangelo
Michelangelo
and Leonardo da Vinci, he forms the traditional trinity of great masters of that period.[5] Raphael
Raphael
was enormously productive, running an unusually large workshop and, despite his death at 37, leaving a large body of work. Many of his works are found in the Vatican Palace, where the frescoed Raphael Rooms were the central, and the largest, work of his career
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Renaissance
The Renaissance
Renaissance
(UK: /rɪˈneɪsəns/, US: /rɛnəˈsɑːns/)[1] is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries. It is an extension of the Middle Ages, and is bridged by the Age of Enlightenment
Age of Enlightenment
to modern history. It grew in fragments, with the very first traces found seemingly in Italy, coming to cover much of Europe, for some scholars marking the beginning of the modern age. The intellectual basis of the Renaissance
Renaissance
was its own invented version of humanism, derived from the concept of Roman Humanitas and the rediscovery of classical Greek philosophy, such as that of Protagoras, who said that "Man is the measure of all things." This new thinking became manifest in art, architecture, politics, science and literature
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Rus' (people)
The Rus' (Slavic: Русь, Greek: Ῥῶς) were an early medieval group, who lived in a large area of what is now Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, and other countries, and are the ancestors of modern Russians and other related slavic peoples. The Rus' came from what is today Roslagen
Roslagen
of modern day Sweden
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Chogha Zanbil
Chogha Zanbil
Chogha Zanbil
(Persian: چغازنبيل‎; Elamite: Dur Untash) is an ancient Elamite
Elamite
complex in the Khuzestan
Khuzestan
province of Iran. It is one of the few existent ziggurats outside Mesopotamia
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Kingdom Of Sicily
the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
(1194–1254) (also with the Kingdom of Jerusalem: 1225–1228) the Crown of Aragon
Crown of Aragon
(1412–1516) the
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Republic Of Venice
The Republic of Venice
Venice
(Italian: Repubblica di Venezia, later: Repubblica Veneta; Venetian: Repùblica de Venèsia, later: Repùblica Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima (Most Serene Republic of Venice) (Italian: Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia; Venetian: Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta), was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for a millennium between the 8th century and the 18th century. It was based in the lagoon communities of the historically prosperous city of Venice, and was a leading European economic and trading power during the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and the Renaissance. The Venetian city state was founded as a safe haven for the people escaping persecution in mainland Europe after the decline of the Roman Empire. In its early years, it prospered on the salt trade. In subsequent centuries, the city state established a thalassocracy
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